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CONCORDANCE ANALYSIS (CA)


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            Concordance Analysis (CA) is a way to identify and analyze an important aspect of close relationships: whether members of a dyad both have a selected behavior or characteristic, and if not which partner does.  The behavior or characteristic can be pro-social such as physical affection or antisocial such as physically assaulting the partner.  However, because of the nature of my research, the examples in this website are almost all on concordance between partners in antisocial behaviors.

Two main parts or steps in CA

            Part 1.  Identify Concordance Types.  The first part is to classify the cases in a study or intervention into one or the other of three Dyadic Concordance Types (DCTs).  This is done by cross tabulating the presence or absence of a behavior of an individual with the presence or absence of that behavior by the other member of the dyad.  If, for example, the focal behavior is physical assault, three of the four resulting cells identify the three DCTs: Male-Only, Female-Only, or Both assaulted.  The fourth cell identifies the reference category of Neither assaulted.  The three DCTs can be identified for almost any behavior, for example, trust, sexual coercion, drinking problem, dominance, helpfulness.  Figures 1 and 2 are examples.  Many more can viewed in (Straus, 2014, In Press). 

The percent in each DCT shown in Figure 1 is consistent with ta review of 48 studies which obtained data on assault by both partners (Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Misra, Selwyn, & Rohling, 2012; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Selwyn, & Rohling, 2012).  Similar results have been found for other abusive behaviors, including sexual coercion (Straus, In Press; Straus & Kemmerer, 2015).

Part 2.  Determine What Is Associated With DCT.  The second part of CA tests hypotheses about variables that might be related to a couple being in one or the other of the three DCTs.  This is done by standard modes of categorical analysis such as analysis of variance and logistic regression.  Figure 3 is an example.  A guide to the methods conducting such analyses is in (Straus, 2016).

 

Contribution Of Concordance Analysis

            CA and DCTs provide a more comprehensive and theoretically relevant approach to understanding close relationships than the focus is the behavior of the individual members of the dyad.  First the individual approach, important as it is, ignores the fact that couple are an ongoing social entity with a history and behavior tendencies that are in addition to those of the partners.  Second, DCTs identify all three logically possible combinations of a dyadic behavior.  Third DCTs are theoretically superior because they differentiating the three types according to a crucial aspect of relationships: social role.  For example, in heterosexual relationships, when only one member of a dyad engages in a focal behavior, DCTs identify the relationship as either Male-Only or Female-Only.  Fourth, DCTs apply not only to married and dating relationships, but also to other family relationships such as parent-child and sibling.  Finally, as previously indicated, DCTs are equally useful to describe and analyze prosocial relationship behaviors and characteristics.  However, the examples are almost entirely antisocial behavior in relationships because that has been a main are of my research.

CA and APIM

CA is part of a rapidly growing trend to investigate and treat close relationships using dyadic data and dyadic analysis.  Dyadic analysis and treatment is required even when one partner does not display the focal behavior because that is one of the characteristics of the relationship, and it can be a crucial characteristic for which help is needed.
            There current main modes of dyadic analysis is the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) is the pioneer and most widely used method of dyadic analysis.  Concordance Analysis (CA) is a recently introduced mode of dyadic analysis.  A detailed comparison of CA and APIM is in (Rodriquez & Straus, 2016).  It identifies what each does that the other does not, and their complementarity (Rodriquez & Straus, 2016).

Papers On DCTs In General And Methodology.  (Click on links at end of references to download)

Rodriquez, L. M., & Straus, M. A. (2016). Dyadic Conceptualization, Measurement, and Analysis of Family Violence. In P. Sturmey (Ed.), Wiley Handbook of Violence and Aggression. New York: John Wiley. (DCT-TM 06)

Straus, M. A. (2014). A Gallery Of Dyadic Concordance Type (DCT) Graphics. Durham, NH: Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire. (DCT-A 09)

Rodriguez, L. M., & Straus, M. A. (2016). Enhancing Modes of Conceptualization And Measuring Dyadic Data. Durham, NH: Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire.  (DCT-TM 10)

Straus, M. A. (2014). Practical ways to conduct international partner violence research using Dyadic analysis. NCFR Report Magazine: Family Focus on International Intimate Partner Violence, Fall, 1-4. (DCT-A 04)

Straus, M. A. (2016). Dyadic Concordance Analysis of Close Relationship. Durham, NH: Family Research Laboratory. (DCT-TM 09)

Studies Of Parents and Children

Straus, M. A., & Michel-Smith, Y. (2014). Mutuality, severity, and chronicity of violence by Father-Only, Mother-Only, and mutually violent parents as reported by university students in 15 nations. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38(4), 664-676. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.10.004 (DCT-PA 02)

Straus, M. A. (2015). Concordance Between Parents In Maltreatment:  How Often Is Maltreatment by Father-Only Mother-Only Or Both And What Difference Does It Make?  Paper presented at the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children 2015 Colloquium in Boston 22-25 July 2015. (DCT-CM 03)

Fauchier, A., & Straus, M. A. (2012). Does It Matter Who Administers Corporal Punishment?  Comparison of Mother-Only, Father-Only, Two-Parent, and Neither-Parent CP in Childhood on Subsequent Adult Functioning. Paper presented at the International Family Violence and Child Victimization Research Conference, Portsmouth, NH, July 9, 2012.  (DCT-CP 01 - CP123)

Straus, M. A. (2013, November). Relation To Crime by University Students In 15 Nations of Corporal Punishment By Father-Only, Mother-Only, And Both Parents. Paper presented at the American Society Of Criminology, Atlanta. (DCT-CP 02)

Rebellon, C. J., & Straus, M. A. (2014). Corporal Punishment By Parents And It’s Relation To Subsequent Social Concern And Crime By Male and Female University Students In 15 Nations. Paper presented at the International Family Violence and Child Victimization Research Conference, Sheraton Harborshide Hotel, Portsmouth, NH,  7 July 2014.  (DCT-CP 06)

Straus, M. A., & Michel-Smith, Y. (2016). Exposure As A Child To Father-Only, Mother-Only, Or Bidirectional Assault Between Parents And Its Relation To Crime By University Students. Durham, NH: Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire. Revision of a paper presented at the American Society Of Criminology annual meeting, Chicago, 15 November, 2012. (can be downloaded from: http://pubpages.unh.edu/~mas2/DT.htm). (DCT-PAE 02)

Studies Of Dating And Married Couples

Straus, M. A., & Michel-Smith, Y. (2014). Mutuality, severity, and chronicity of violence by Father-Only, Mother-Only, and mutually violent parents as reported by university students in 15 nations. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38(4), 664-676. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.10.004 (DCT-PA 02)

Straus, M. A., & Gozjolko, K. L. (2014). Dyadic Concordance In Intimate Terrorism: Implications For The Theoretical, Methodological, And Empirical Adequacy of Johnson’s Typology. Paper presented at the American Society Of Criminology, November 2014, San Francisco. (DCT-PA 04)

Straus, M. A., & Saito, K. (2014). Risk Factors For Dyadic Concordance Types Of Assault Perpetration By Male And Female University Students In 15 Nations. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 8 August 2014.  (DCT-PAC 02)

Straus, M. A., & Michel-Smith, Y. (2014). Dyadic Concordance In Psychological Aggression And Its Relation to Physical Assault Of Dating Partners By Male And Female University Students In 32 Nations. Paper presented at the European Society of Criminology, Prague. (DCT-S 06)

Michel-Smith, Yahayra, & Straus, Murray (2014). Dyadic Patterns of PeCTrpetration of Physical Assault and Injury of Dating Partners By Male and Female University Students in 32 Nations. Paper presented at the Stockholm Criminology Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden. (DCT-PA 05)

Straus, M. A., & Winstok, Z.. (2013). Relation of Dyadic Concordance-Discordance Types of Partner Violence to Depression of Male and Female University Students in 15 Nations. Paper presented at the Society for the Study of Social Problems, New York. (DCT-PAE 04)

Winstok, Z. & Straus, M. A. (2014). Gender Differences in the Link between Intimate Partner Physical Violence and Depression. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19, 91-101. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2014.01.003. (DCT-PAE 05)

Straus, M. A., & Michel-Smith, Y. (2016). Exposure As A Child To Father-Only, Mother-Only, Or Bidirectional Assault Between Parents And Its Relation To Crime By University Students. Durham, NH: Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire. Revision of a paper presented at the American Society Of Criminology annual meeting, Chicago, 15 November, 2012. (can be downloaded from: http://pubpages.unh.edu/~mas2/DT.htm.).
(DCT-PE 02)

Studies Of Sexual Coercion

Straus, M. A., & Kemmerer, K. (2015, 19 November). Relation of Concordance Between Partners In Sexual Coercion To Relationship Distress Of Male And Female Partners. Paper presented at the American Society Of Criminology annual meeting, Washington, DC.  (DCT-S 01)

Michel-Smith, Y., & Straus, M. A. (2015). Prevalence and Concordance in sexual coercion of partners by university student couples in 32 nations. Paper presented at the European Society of Criminology, Porto, Portugal. (DCT-S 02)

Straus, M. A. (2016). Measurement and Dyadic Analysis of Sexual Coercion with the CTS2. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire, Family Research Laboratory. (DCT-S 04)

REFERENCES

Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Misra, T. A., Selwyn, C., & Rohling, M. L. (2012). #3 Rates of Bi-directional versus Uni-directional Intimate Partner Violence Across Samples, Sexual Orientations, and Race/Ethnicities: A Comprehensive Review. Partner Abuse, 3(2), 1-2. doi: 10.1891/1946-6560.3.2.e3

Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Selwyn, C., & Rohling, M. L. (2012). Rates of Bidirectional Versus Unidirectional Intimate Partner Violence Across Samples, Sexual Orientations, and Race/Ethnicities: A Comprehensive Review. Partner Abuse, 3(2), 199-230. doi: 10.1891/1946-6560.3.2.199

Rodriquez, L. M., & Straus, M. A. (2016). Dyadic Conceptualization, Measurement, and Analysis of Family Violence. In P. Sturmey (Ed.), Wiley Handbook of Violence and Aggression. New York: John Wiley.  Download from http://pubpages.unh.edu/~mas2/.

Straus, M. A. (2014). A Gallery Of Dyadic Concordance Type (DCT) Graphics. Durham, NH: Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire.  (can be downloaded from: http://pubpages.unh.edu/~mas2/DT.htm.).

Straus, M. A. (2016). Dyadic Concordance Analysis of Close Relationship. Durham, NH: Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire. Download from http://pubpages.unh.edu/~mas2/.

Straus, M. A. (In Press). Dyadic concordance In family violence:  A powerful and practical approach to research and practice on perpetration and victimization. Journal of Aggression and Violent Behavior.

Straus, M. A., & Kemmerer, K. (2015). Relation of Concordance Between Partners In Sexual Coercion To Relationship Distress Of Male And Female Partners. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire, Family Research Laboratory. Available in: http://pubpages.unh.edu/~mas2/.