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The DDI measures:

  1. Misbehavior by the child
  2. Use of nine discipline techniques such as explanation, corporal punishment and reward.
  3. Ten aspects of the mode of implementing discipline (such as impulsivity) and the context (such as agreement-disagreement between parents on discipline).
  4. Degree of approval or disapproval of each of the nine discipline techniques.

Despite the broad coverage, the DDI is brief - 10 to 20 minutes, average time 15 minutes.

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Bell, Tessa, and Elisa Romano. 2012. "Opinions About Child Corporal Punishment and Influencing Factors." Journal of Interpersonal Violence online first.

Burbank, Melissa. 2005. "Development of the Dimensions of Discipline Inventory (DDI)." Durham, NH: Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire.

Feng, Jui-Ying, Meng-Chu Tsai, Yi-Wen Chen, and Min-Fung Wu. 2010. "Discipline, anxiety and depression among university students in Taiwan    Paper Presented at the STTI International Nursing Research Congress.

Gámez-Guadix, Manuel, Carmen  Almendros, José Antonio Carrobles, and Marina  Muñoz-Rivas. 2012. "Interparental Violence and Children’s Long-Term Psychosocial Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Parenting Practices." The Spanish Journal of Psychology 15(1):145-55.

Gámez-Guadix, Manuel , Izaskun  Orue, Esther  Calvete, José Antonio Carrobles, Marina Muñoz-Rivas, and Carmen Almendros. 2010. "Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Dimensions of Discipline Inventory (DDI) in university students." Psicothema 22(1):151-56.

Istomina, Anastasia V., and Alexandra V. Lysova. 2008. "Characteristics of 575 Russian parents who used corporal punishment as a discipline method." in International Family Violence and Child Victimization Research Conference. Portsmouth, NH.

Izen, S. (2012). Childhood discipline and the development of moral courage. MA Master of Arts, Univeristy of Massachusetts Lowell, Peace and Conflict Studies Program.

Lysova, Alexandra V. 2008. "Corporal punishment and other discipline methods used by Russian parents in relation to children’s age and sex." in International Family Violence and Child Victimization Research Conference. Portsmouth, NH.

Taillieu, Tamara L. 2010. " The Impact of Aggressive Parental Disciplinary Strategies Implemented in Childhood on Externalizing and Internalizing Problem Behaviour in Early Adulthood " Pp. 188 in Family Social Sciences. Winnipeg Canada: The University of Manitoba.

Van Leeweun, Karla G., Angele Fauchier, and Murray A. Straus. 2012. "Assessing Dimensions of Parental Discipline." Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 34:216-31.