Chimp development slightly ahead at birth, 6 months

Falls behind at a year

Striking similarities- why alike?

List of similarities

Eyes

Coordination

Color vision

Intricate movements with fingers (but not exactly like humans)

But no language, or vocalization like humans

Tools

Fixed vs created

Aye-aye vs chimp

Nutcracking cultures

(but there is little evidence of direct imitation and none of "teaching" -- what seems most reasonable at the moment (2005) is a lot of social priming as infants watch their mothers, along with motivated trial and error learning on the part of the young chimps. Not until 5 or 6 years are they really getting some benefits from their efforts.)

Food

Mineral supplement

Herbal medicine

Imitation

Same old orang

Painting?

No evidence for representational drawing.

Baboons- very social primates (some point to baboons as useful models for human society in certain respects.

Advantages of groups- mating, safety, food

Social structure and dominance -- access to food and mates

Males leave the natal group and find way into new groups (females have this role in apes and many human cultures.)

Violence and stress hormones - aggressive baboons suffer but there is a tradeoff perhaps between costs/benefits of aggression.

Japanese macaques

Overpopulation , overfeeding, adaptation to it --limit close contacts including eye gaze.

Intelligence

Mirror recognition

Monkeys no, humans si! Chimps??

Mark test? Yes for chimps

Other minds

Gaze insight in chimps?

Do chimps know who might know something? (Bucket on head test)

Intention reading?

Was juice spilled by accident or intent? Little evidence for knowledge of other minds in chimps though research not over.

Chimp politics

Use of meat sharing for alliances? The importance of coalitions.

Bonobos

Slender, easier upright posture, gaze (not genetically closer than common chimp, ust more paedomorphic (child-like body?)

Female and male leadership

Group care for young ?

Sex for tension reduction and social bonding.

Swellings 3/4 time (not as extensive as human receptivity)

Only sex taboo between 6+years males and moms.

No observed killings.

Kanzi- follow's action directions quite well "Put the x on the y"(but dogs and parrots do this quite well too.)

Natural communication: emotional noises, most vocal great ape