Produced by Christophe Boesch and Hedwige Boesch-Achermann (25 min).
(jl) These are the so-called common chimpanzees; bonobos have not been observed doing this. Obviously this is an activity dependent on a supply of nuts as well as coordination and intellect, etc. It may also be limited to a sub-species of chimps found in western Africa. (Note that my comments are usually prefaced or followed by (jl))
" as for tool use, the chimpanzee, in a state of nature cracks a native fruit, somewhat like a walnut, with a stone."
(jl) All to often we hear about a "new" discovery that either was previously known or is overinterpreted as more human-like than previously thought.
The anvils appear to be flat rocks but stumps and limbs also are used.
(jl)What does that mean?
dominance gives access to the best tools
young chimps are forced to use inefficient tools
the young may share tool with mother
It appeared there was lots of right hand pounding as the right foot holds. This may be just a coincidence.
They beg from mother's mouth rather than take pieces from the anvil. Recall "mouth feeding" in humans! Most primates learn about food in this way -- "kissing" their mother's lips for a taste. Mother NHP's rarely are seen "teaching" appropriate foods.
Three year olds begin to show an interest in cracking their own nuts. This is described as "copying" the mother but this is interpretation that may not stand up See readings (Bryne, 1995, and Tomasello, 1994) on issues here. Mothers may set the stage for individual "trial & error" learning without explicit teaching or even modelling--just social priming.
Five-year olds are successful. It takes about 4 years of practice to actually get the nuts out.
There were scenes of young chimps collecting nuts for mom to crack!
Young chimps stay with mothers till about 12 years old.