(Note the nut-cracking video coming soon, on Western Tai forest chimps).
Goodall used provisioning (laying out a pile of bananas) to attract chimps for better observation. But to what extent were these observations colored by the provisioning? Much ape behavior is governed by access and control of food and some of these greedy and angry displays might be very unlikely in a more natural setting. Later Jane recognized this but it seemed a good idea at the time.
A. changes during maturation
contrast with human paedomorphosis . Young chimps are more like human infants than older chimps are like older humans.
B male and female differences
physical (sexual dimorphism)
Note thata female chimps are not as small as female orangs and gorillas, compared with chimp males. This reflects a different sexual/mating situation. There is no dominant chimp male who exclusively mates with all females.
behavioral sex differences
1 interest in infants
2 aggressive behavior
3 "harassment" and intimidation of females
Somewhere Franz de Waal notes that if we held chimps to contemporary human standards of sexual behavior, they all would be in the slammer! (Think about the many implications of this.) More on this later.
Some very good film of the very expressive, individual faces, close social relationships, and physical structure of face and hands utilized in these relationships. Also it is important to note that the feeding habits strongly determine structure of a species.
role of unique faces and individuality (I wonder if chimps are "specialized" for facial recognition as it seems humans are? Do they have cases of "prosopagnosia?" too?)
A. knuckle walking
C. bipedal potential (recall differences in human adaptations for bipedalism)
Eating up to 7 hours per day: fruit, leaves, some insects and meat.
Probably mostly a social interaction rather than practical flea, etc. removal.
individuality seen in faces
A. very quiet unless excited (and then they are very loud!)
See pages from Goodall (1985) in readings for vocalization types
it has proven nearly impossible to train vocalizations in chimps (see the Vicki video notes.)
B. gestures and facial expressions
(Not so different from any primate.)
fruits, flowers, nuts, and leaves
fishing for termites. Note the clumsy (by human standards) skills here and elsewhere in throwing, striking with sticks, nestbuilding.
get the baboon! -- eat'im up! Colobus monkeys are other favorite meals when they can be hunted down.
continues until past 3 years--maybe to 5, gradual increase of solid foods. See the Nutcracking chimps video.
polio--recall Darwin's (1871) remarks. Here is an interesting summary of human-chimp disease comparisions.
very few animal dangers (humans, baboons, leopards)
1 sex organs
Behavior from morphology here too? Note the large testicles! Why so big? Note the extreme vaginal swellings when females are fertile and the relatively large visible penises when erect.
a promiscuous society where paternity is unknown When females mature they leave the group to find another. Mothers and sons stay together.
Goodall reports that a female may elicit up to 50 matings per day! This promotes much competition among the sperm of the males mating and one can imagine various adaptations to facilitate conception.
Recent investigations of West African "Tai" forest chimps revealed using DNA to determine paternity, that a fair number of infants were sired by males not in the group and that two-thirds of infants were sired by males who had relatively high dominance sometime in their lives. (See Gagneux, P., Woodruff, D. S., & Boesch, C. (1997). Furtive mating in female chimpanzees. Nature, 387, 358-359.) Even more recent work, however, calls this into question. In any case, no chimp is likely to know who its father is!!
3 rates of reproduction
related to nursing and diet . Do chimps have anythiing like human menopause?
Excellent examples of closer similarity to humans in body proportions, lack of hair, and feet. Note efforts to "walk" at 5 months compared with 8 to 12 for human infants. Take a good look at the newborn chimps hand, which is much like a human's compared with its mother's hand.
1 neoteny and paedomorphosis
protection-contrast with human conditions
2 maternal care
A. clinging. attachment and security
Or lack of it in "Flint" the pathological delinquent. Generally weaning is important as it increases the mother's fertility, enabling her to conceive again. It has even been suggested that one virtue of lactose intolerance in humans is to assist in weaning. While this may be just pure speculation, it is clear that the success of our human ancestors lies largely in their ability to reproduce much more efficiently than the great apes today. Many synergistic factors are involved in this.
B. role of other females than mother
D. role of mother or other caretaker in acquiring skills
There is relatively little "male parental investment" in chimp society beyond sperm contribution and some protection for the young. This is thought to be related to lack of knowledge about paternity. Some of the videos show males interacting with young ones to some extent that might serve as a "role model" for others.
but there are exceptions, especially when infants are involved
1 males are dominant in aggression
2 among other chimps within group
Males may become dominant by virtue of size, strength, cleverness (recall Mike banging the empty can) and importantly ability to form coalitions with other males and even females.
B. sex and communication
C. coalitions within groups including females
3 chimps outside groups
4 towards other species
5 cannibalism? Passion and Pom killings of infants
impulsivity -(note how this relates to "intelligent" behavior
(brain similarity to humans)
(mirror experience) in readings
Chimps, like orangutans but not gorillas, seem to be able, with experience to recognize themselves in a mirror. This suggests they may have the rudiments of self-identity or even consciousness.