Brain BBC video – (revised 3/11/11)
size of humans vs apes
Why haven’t chimps with relatively big brains and good hands
refined their tool use over generations?
of prefrontal cortex (PFC)-2X in
Clinical case- effects of PFC damage
Phineas Gage too
Imaging of PFC
Lots of early lesion studies on PFC using monkeys and apes
(Becky & Betty?). Lobotomies
were one result of this.
Currently lots of imaging
studies exploring changes in activity levels as tasks change.
Keeping overall goals in mind
Control and inhibition of behaviors (JL)
Compare with chimps
Maze solution—is it really deep planning? Don’t you or
the chimp just look ahead?
Can chimps really “plan” even a few days ahead? There is little analogy to mazes here
because the maze is always visible—no representation is needed. Planning
is relevant but easy if goal can be maintained.
Function in culture?
Transmission of specific information as culture
Component to intra-personal cognitive processes, e.g. thought,
Cause-Effects of stroke—failure of blood supply- rupture, clot..
Old localization ideas
Broca & Wernicke’s area
Good grief! Take an aspirin and call 911! Don't fly to L.A!
Effects of stroke
– loss of oxygen, fuel, exhaust destroy neurons in minutes.
Sherrington--Penfield-like probes during
epileptic surgery (Ojemann). This
works as brain has no pain receptors.
New localization of brain function ideas
Old ideas statistically reliable but…
Neural Networks devoted to specifics
Lots of individual differences
Laterality of brain function --obvious in humans, less so in
6. Recent genetic findings show humans have undergone several
language-related gene mutations with the last 5 to 50K years –- not to
mention the previous 7 million year split from a common chimp-human
including those related to vocalization (FOXP2) and hearing.
C Using human-based codes with apes—the Georgia
there’s no question that these bonobos can communicate with symbols and limited
comprehension of spoken English.
It is important not to lose perspective however—no matter what S. S.
Rumbaugh says. These apes are
about at the level of 18 month old kids and that is a gross comparison. The idea that they comprehend like
children of 5 to 7 years is ridiculous.
Vocabulary of the apes seems about a few hundred while that of children
at 5 years might be 5-8 thousand and climbing.
there are many functions of human L, even in 2-3 year olds that chimps seem
D- human language and the left
hemisphere—the split brain view
argues a recent mutation specialized the human left hemisphere, enabling it
(the “interpreter”) to tell causal stories about experiences. It remains unclear whether this is
caused directly by human language or is somehow just associated with it.