primate mind:Tools, Language, Consciousness (TLC)

intelligence as adaptive ability

general and specific adaptations

Descartes' issues: reasoning or just machine-like?

the answer is a complex "both"

tools as adaptive devices

primates as generalists

Claws, wings, teeth, feathers, etc. are all adaptations that specialize creatures. While primates too have specializations, they retain greater adaptability only useful in certain circumstances, e.g. longevity, slow maturation, high parental investment.

tool use --broadly considered --in mammals

nonhuman primates
ideas as tools

culture and language as tools
These have to be open, flexible, to be of maximum benefit; yet they need to be acquired early in life for the same reasons. Hence, human primates --to a lesser degree our close relatives -- are paradoxically specialized to be general! That is, we have evolved brain mechanisms that enable us to "learn to learn" specific things such as human language, which in turn enables learning from others far more efficiently than any form of social priming.

6. technology: tool use in primates

the importance of tool use

practical and theoretical,

Human culture and behavior is synonymous with tool use. The practical value of tools --from clubs, knives, and needles to computers and science -- even language --needs no comment.

The obvious differences between the universal use of tools by humans and their sparse use by NHPs suggests understanding tool use may reveal much about human nature and its origins.

mythology of tool-use

One might get the impression from some recent writers that NHP use of tools was a recent and surprising--even dismaying discovery. Savage-Rumbaugh (1995) says, for example, "The belief that man alone can make tools had gone by the wayside in the first years of Jane Goodall's observations in the field. p. 201"

Despite such suggestions to the contrary, tool use in NHPs has been known at least since Darwin. He noted, for example,:

Some of the earliest experimental work including that of Kohler and others documented considerable tool-using capability in the laboratory, supplementing the anecdotal observations from performing apes and early naturalistic observations (Garner, 189x).

Recent research --Goodall's observations on chimpanzees' use of sticks in ant fishing, detailed accounts of nut-cracking-- as well as experimental work demonstrate and more imortantly refine both the degree and limitations of tool-use in NHPs. This research does not radically change our conception of the primate order--except perhaps for those who were ignorant of prior work.

The more sophisticated recent analysis, do however, raise subtle and important questions about how individuals and social groups come to utililize tools.

does tool-use imply intelligence? (Bryne)

We can imagine Descarte's answer to the question --only if it is a flexible general usage with some understanding of cause-effect relationships.

Bryne says: "single, isolated cases of object manipulation give little confidence that the perpetrators have a general understanding of cause and effect relations among objects; a wider repertoire of tool use, showing some flexibilty, would point more clearly to intelligent usage....for a few species of primates....a picture of animals that can use a range of tools for a range of purposes, animals that can choose between methods. This suggests real intelligence 88-9."

(capuchins (cebus) monkeys)

These have relatively large brains and are generally thought quite intelligent for monkeys. Bryne suggests their success stems from their great activity rather than insight into why an object makes a useful tool. 93

tools as temporary adaptations

primates as generalists

hand (and eye/brain) as basic adaptations
tools as artifactual specializations

3 contexts in wild


common chimps most noted tool users in wild

minimal tool construction

all seem capable in captivity

shows role of natural environment

Only the western chimps systematically crack nuts; this reflects availability and possibly some natural selection at work.

shows role of cultural environment

Orangs are the most obvious example. They apparently can do anything chimps do in captivity but seem to little in the wild.

acquisition of tool use (2 videos, Tomasello)

social learning: priming, or imitation?

The basic point here is that humans clearly can acquire knowledge from others by observation and instruction. Apes surely benefit from the presence of others with solutions to problems but exactly how remains unclear as Tomasello's (1994) experiments suggest. See Bryne (1995) for a thorough discussion.

Also see Nagell, K., Olguin, R. S., & Tomasello, M. (1993). Processes of social learning in the tool use of chimpanzees (Pan troglydytes) and human children (Homo sapiens). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 107, 174-186. (video data)

wild western chimps

unique in perception of intent or goals?

Bryne (1995), following Tomasello (1990) distinguishes "emulation" from other types of social priming in that the goal of the observed animal is emulated. Tomasello (1994) compares chimps with humans on this dimension.

"I believe these studies suggest that chimpanzees and human children understand the tool-using behavior of conspecifics in different ways. For human children, the goal or intention of the demonstrator is a central part of what they perceive and, thus, her actual methods of tool use--the details of the way she is attempting to accomplish that goal become salient. For chimpanzees, the tool, the food, and their physical relation are salient; the intentional states of the demonstrator and her preceise methods, on the other hand, are either not perceived or seem less relevant. p. 305"

universal social learning
universal tool building

significance of ape tool use in captivity?
tool use by captive primates

Kohler and others, Wright (1972) in HP, 232,, and Kanzi (video) all show skills at tools use--not to mention hundreds of imaginable circus acts and the achievements of the home-raised chimps.

evolution of tool use

hominid tool users

Homo habilis (handy man) 2.5 mya
recent discoveries of throwing spears 400,000 y

prerequisites to tool use

Much of this is captured in the descriptive features of the stages in Piaget's sensori-motor period.

causal understanding of the world

object permanence etc.

dexterity: timing and coordination
foresight and planning

Human tool use is not only universal; so is the culture of tool making.

positive feedback relating tool use to brain

size of brain
brain specialized circuits

especially coordination of eye-hand activity with planning for future

the importance of environmental stress

This sort of feedback is only likely when there are extreme advantages to using tools. In the rainforest environments, these advantages may not be great. Recall how the Tai chimps devised a modest nut-cracking culture.

availability of hand etc.

Indeed the unique human hand, with its opposable thumb and precision grip may have been shaped by the increasingly important tool use of our ancestors. Susman (1994, 1995) argues that tool use shows up in the fossil record of the hominid hand about 2 million years ago, about 500,000 years after the earliest stone tools have been dated.

handedness in primates

While there are many reports of hand preference in primates, only humans as a species consistently show a right hand preference across many tasks.

Annett (19xx, 1991) has argued handedness is a genetic trait related to language.

MacNeilage (19xx) argues in his "postural origins" theory that handedness has its roots back in ancient prosimians who clung to branches with their right hand and reached for food with the left. One implication from this theory is that to really evaluate handedness, the animal has to be put in certain situation for a handedness tendency to reveal itself.

Overall species, there appear to be three general tendencies. The prosimians, like their ancestors, still display a left hand preference. whereas apes in varying degrees and situations and of course humans , prefer their right hand. In m

McGrew and Merchant, 1992, for example found no handedness in termite fishing but a right hand bias in reaching. Hopkins, Bard, Jones, and Bales, 1993 found an interesting relationship between throwing hand, position, and sex. Captive females were more likely to throw with the right hand in both four and two legged positions; while males used their right side much more when bipedal.

This raises some interesting speculation about the possible interrelationship of human lateralized function, language, and bipedality.

the "problem" of over capacity in primates

"Evolution could not supply an animal with mental or physiocal quipment of which it has no need, because there can be no selection pressure if the equipment is of no value in promoting survival. 222 HP"

possible answers to the "problem" 223

generic exam question

Discuss the use of tools by the large primates. Describe and contrast typical use contexts, advantages, and acquisition of these skills in the various species. What factors play a role in tool use and the evolution of those behaviors? What are some issues in interpreting the origin of these behaviors in individuals (ontogeny)? For example, what distinguishes "intelligent" tool use?

video scenes of NHP tool use

Galdikas' orangs
lots of ant fishing in Goodall
Tomasello (reading and video)
Kortlandt's throwing chimps
Kanzi stone chipping
Kohler's tasks
Miles orang