WARNING! Spring 1995 students--this exam from last year covers less material than will your next exam. There were FOUR exams then; we have three this year! 1.

According to the ideas in the Milton paper, we should expect--all else being equal--that large bodied primate folivores (leaf-eaters) when compared with large-bodied frugivores (fruit-eaters) should have evolved relatively ______ brains.

a.-equivalent

b- smaller

c- larger d -denser

2.

What concept is most relevant to distinguishing or differentiating the neocortical motor centers involved in forelimb movement of a calf from a chimp infant?

a-operant conditioning

b-movement directed feedback from the forelimbs

c-mylination of nerve fibers

d-differential parental investment

3.

Harlow (p.3) claims that "The one-year old monkey is about twice as intelligent as the one-year old human being." What below might best explain this perhaps surprising claim.

a- Harlow only studied infant humans and knows nothing about monkeys.

b- the concept of neoteny discussed by Gould

c- Harlow is using the Stanford-Binet IQ test on monkeys.

d- two times zero is zero

4.

Studies involving removal and/or damage of brain tissue in both humans and monkeys--as discussed in both class (e.g. hemispherectomies) and Harlow's chapter-- demonstrates the same thing: namely that

a-the location of damage does not matter

b- the amount of damage is the only significant predictor of behavioral deficit.

c- the age at which damage occurs makes an enormous difference in extent of behavioral deficit

d- prefrontal cortex damage has little or no effect on behavior

5.

The first psychologist to raise a chimp in a human environment was probably _______.

a- Carpenter b-Kohts c-Kellogg d-Yerkes

6.

______ is a complex learning task in which the subject is rewarded for choosing an object with a certain quality such as a certain form, color, or brightness.

a-object discrimination

b-object permanence

c- oddity learning

d- the conditioned response paradigm

7.

The "domain-specific" view of intelligence suggests that

a- intelligence can only be be discussed in qualitative terms

b- all species are equally intelligent

c-some aspects of primate intelligence may be more highly developed than others

d-social and non-social intelligence should be highly correlated.

8.

Giving a human interpretation to nonhuman behavior is known as

a- anthropomorphism

b- paedomorphosis

c- allometry

d- anthrocite

9.

Which of the following is most characteristic of gorillas?

a- Males may weigh about 150 kg; females about the same.

b- They are monogamous and highly territorial.

c- Males typically eat up to 30 kg of leaves and bark each day.

d- Gorillas are the largest tree dwelling apes.

10.

From the Gua and Donald Kellogg film, what appeared to be the greatest difference between species?

a- their first experience of ice

b- their response to wearing hats

c- their locomotive ability

d- they were indistinguishable in terms of behavior

11.

What best summarizes Passingham's conclusion about the relationship between brain size and intelligence in human populations?

a- There is absolutely no relationship

b- There may be some very slight relationship between intelligence and brain size.

c- There may be some very slight relationship between intelligence and relative brain size

d- There is a very strong relationship between relative brain size and human intelligence.

12.

What best captures the criteria Passingham endorses as one valid means of assessing intelligence?

a- a high degree of sensorimotor coordination

b- an ability to appreciate rules and make valid inferences

c- an above average vocabulary

d- an early achievement of all six sensormotor stages

13.

The concept of "learning set" developed by Harlow and used by Passingham refers to

a- the WGTA used in evaluating primate intelligence

b- the set of tasks, including discrimination and oddity, used to evaluate intelligence

c- the efficiency with which subjects (e.g. monkeys) improve their performance over a series of similar problems.

14.

One experimental task devised by ________ (during World War I) to assess chimpanzee intellect involved putting food in full view of the animal. However the food was out of reach unless the chimp figured out how to use various combinations of sticks and boxes, also in full view to get to the food.

a- Piaget b- Kohler c- Yerkes d- Harlow

15.

Passingham points out that brain size can be used to predict a complex set of features relating to a mammal's life periods and reproduction. What of the following is NOT positively correlated with brain size?

a- later sexual maturity

b- relatively immature at birth

c- giving birth to many young after a short gestation period

d- long life

16

Passingham, in his discussion of Kohler's work on problem solving in chimpanzees, suggests that these chimps attempt solutions

a- with a fresh perspective each time, as though the problem were new.

b- with full knowledge of the tools available to them and their properties.

c- which originate in the chimp's natural repertoire or in its past personal history.

d- only when deprived of food or water

17

On the basis of the monkey research discussed in Passingham, severe damage to the parietal and temporal association cortex can be expected to have only minimal effects on a primate's ability to solve discrimination tasks.

a- True b- False

18

After the initial overproduction and pruning of neurons in the first year or two, the weight of the primate brain and the number of neurons remains constant until death.

a- True b- False

19

Which primate sensory modality might best be described as making molecular contact with fragments of perceptual objects?

a- touch b-smell c- hearing d- sight

20

The brain development of all primates is governed by identical biological processes. Differences in size appear to result from natural selection acting on regulatory genes determining the duration of fetal neuron production. Which of the following selection factors seems most important, at present, in this process?

a- diet and foraging demands

b- social recognition and interaction demands

c- vocalization and auditory demands

d- all of the above appear important in one or another primate species

1. The exam is exactly the same format as exam 1. Do the following essay in your exam "Bluebook."

2. Select any two of the three short answer questions. Answer them right on this page or the other side if needed.

3. Do the twenty multiple choice questions on the answer sheet using a #2 pencil. Please erase carefully or the machine, not you, will answer the question.

******************************ESSAY (2-4 pages)

advantages of intelligence in ___ (socialization, foraging, social interactions)

Your readings and our class discussion touched on the importance of "intelligence" in various activities including socialization, foraging, and social interactions. Discuss, using examples, of how EACH of these three activities may promote the development of "intelligence" through the usual processes of variation and natural selection. Be sure to say something about WHY it is reasonable to suppose some common capabilities are involved in all of these that justifies saying "intelligence" is involved. (Or if you disagree, say so and why?) Where possible, give the source of your ideas, e.g. According to Milton...."

Short answers (any two)

1. Briefly explain with examples, how body size, diet, and home-range size might be interrelated in primate foraging.

2. Assuming that larger primate brains do indicate greater intelligence, what are some of the "costs" associated with that intelligence?

3. What is the relationship between cognitive abilities, socialization, and intelligence in primates--including humans? (use the other side of the page)