WARNING! Spring 1995 students--this exam from last year covers less
material than will your next exam. There were FOUR exams then; we have
three this year!
According to the ideas in the Milton paper, we should expect--all else being
equal--that large bodied primate folivores (leaf-eaters) when compared with
large-bodied frugivores (fruit-eaters) should have evolved relatively ______
c- larger d -denser
What concept is most relevant to distinguishing or differentiating the
neocortical motor centers involved in forelimb movement of a calf from a chimp
b-movement directed feedback from the forelimbs
c-mylination of nerve fibers
d-differential parental investment
Harlow (p.3) claims that "The one-year old monkey is about twice as intelligent
as the one-year old human being." What below might best explain this perhaps
a- Harlow only studied infant humans and knows nothing about monkeys.
b- the concept of neoteny discussed by Gould
c- Harlow is using the Stanford-Binet IQ test on monkeys.
d- two times zero is zero
Studies involving removal and/or damage of brain tissue in both humans and
monkeys--as discussed in both class (e.g. hemispherectomies) and Harlow's
chapter-- demonstrates the same thing: namely that
a-the location of damage does not matter
b- the amount of damage is the only significant predictor of behavioral
c- the age at which damage occurs makes an enormous difference in extent of
d- prefrontal cortex damage has little or no effect on behavior
The first psychologist to raise a chimp in a human environment was probably
a- Carpenter b-Kohts c-Kellogg d-Yerkes
______ is a complex learning task in which the subject is rewarded for choosing
an object with a certain quality such as a certain form, color, or
c- oddity learning
d- the conditioned response paradigm
The "domain-specific" view of intelligence suggests that
a- intelligence can only be be discussed in qualitative terms
b- all species are equally intelligent
c-some aspects of primate intelligence may be more highly developed than
d-social and non-social intelligence should be highly correlated.
Giving a human interpretation to nonhuman behavior is known as
Which of the following is most characteristic of gorillas?
a- Males may weigh about 150 kg; females about the same.
b- They are monogamous and highly territorial.
c- Males typically eat up to 30 kg of leaves and bark each day.
d- Gorillas are the largest tree dwelling apes.
From the Gua and Donald Kellogg film, what appeared to be the greatest
difference between species?
a- their first experience of ice
b- their response to wearing hats
c- their locomotive ability
d- they were indistinguishable in terms of behavior
What best summarizes Passingham's conclusion about the relationship between
brain size and intelligence in human populations?
a- There is absolutely no relationship
b- There may be some very slight relationship between intelligence and brain
c- There may be some very slight relationship between intelligence and relative
d- There is a very strong relationship between relative brain size and human
What best captures the criteria Passingham endorses as one valid means of
a- a high degree of sensorimotor coordination
b- an ability to appreciate rules and make valid inferences
c- an above average vocabulary
d- an early achievement of all six sensormotor stages
The concept of "learning set" developed by Harlow and used by Passingham
a- the WGTA used in evaluating primate intelligence
b- the set of tasks, including discrimination and oddity, used to evaluate
c- the efficiency with which subjects (e.g. monkeys) improve their performance
over a series of similar problems.
One experimental task devised by ________ (during World War I) to assess
chimpanzee intellect involved putting food in full view of the animal.
However the food was out of reach unless the chimp figured out how to use
various combinations of sticks and boxes, also in full view to get to the
a- Piaget b- Kohler c- Yerkes d- Harlow
Passingham points out that brain size can be used to predict a complex set of
features relating to a mammal's life periods and reproduction. What of the
following is NOT positively correlated with brain size?
a- later sexual maturity
b- relatively immature at birth
c- giving birth to many young after a short gestation period
d- long life
Passingham, in his discussion of Kohler's work on problem solving in
chimpanzees, suggests that these chimps attempt solutions
a- with a fresh perspective each time, as though the problem were new.
b- with full knowledge of the tools available to them and their properties.
c- which originate in the chimp's natural repertoire or in its past personal
d- only when deprived of food or water
On the basis of the monkey research discussed in Passingham, severe damage to
the parietal and temporal association cortex can be expected to have only
minimal effects on a primate's ability to solve discrimination tasks.
a- True b- False
After the initial overproduction and pruning of neurons in the first year or
two, the weight of the primate brain and the number of neurons remains constant
a- True b- False
Which primate sensory modality might best be described as making molecular
contact with fragments of perceptual objects?
a- touch b-smell c- hearing d- sight
The brain development of all primates is governed by identical biological
processes. Differences in size appear to result from natural selection acting
on regulatory genes determining the duration of fetal neuron production. Which
of the following selection factors seems most important, at present, in this
a- diet and foraging demands
b- social recognition and interaction demands
c- vocalization and auditory demands
d- all of the above appear important in one or another primate species
1. The exam is exactly the same format as exam 1. Do the following essay in
your exam "Bluebook."
2. Select any two of the three short answer questions. Answer them right on
this page or the other side if needed.
3. Do the twenty multiple choice questions on the answer sheet using a #2
pencil. Please erase carefully or the machine, not you, will answer the
******************************ESSAY (2-4 pages)
Your readings and our class discussion touched on the importance of
"intelligence" in various activities including socialization, foraging, and
social interactions. Discuss, using examples, of how EACH of these three
activities may promote the development of "intelligence" through the usual
processes of variation and natural selection. Be sure to say something about
WHY it is reasonable to suppose some common capabilities are involved in all of
these that justifies saying "intelligence" is involved. (Or if you disagree,
say so and why?) Where possible, give the source of your ideas, e.g. According
Short answers (any two)
1. Briefly explain with examples, how body size, diet, and home-range
size might be interrelated in primate foraging.
2. Assuming that larger primate brains do indicate greater intelligence, what
are some of the "costs" associated with that intelligence?
3. What is the relationship between cognitive abilities, socialization, and
intelligence in primates--including humans? (use the other side of the page)