From: Journal.Graphics@bobj.cc.uic.edu
Newsgroups: jrnl.pbs.nova
Subject: [1/5] Can Chimps Talk?
Date: Sat, 19 Feb 1994 05:02:17 CDT
Message-ID: 
X-Show-code: NOVA
X-Show-num: 2105 : Part 1 of 5
X-Show-seg: 0
X-Show-date: 02/15/94
X-Show-topics: t050-t518
X-Byline:
X-Section: News; Domestic
X-Type: Show

This transcript is provided as a service of Journal Graphics. The WGBH
Educational Foundation is not responsible for any errors or
mischaracterizations in this transcript. This transcript has not been
proofread against the videotape and the producer's records and its accuracy
cannot be guaranteed. (JPM)

NOVA Show #2105

Air Date: February 15, 1994

Can Chimps Talk?

ANNOUNCER:  Tonight on Nova, a chimpanzee called Konzi [sp?] seems to
understand human speech to a degree never before thought possible.

SUE SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH, Georgia State University:  Parents really don't
know how they teach their children language. Why should I have to know how
I teach Konzi language? I just act normal around him, and he learns it.

ANNOUNCER:  The capacity for language was long thought to be
exclusively ours, but some remarkable apes caused us to ask, `Can Chimps
Talk?'

JANINE MURPHY [sp?]:  Konzi, this is Janine. Would you like any food?
Tell me what food you'd like.

TALKING KEYBOARD:  Food surprise.

Ms. MURPHY:  Some food surprise?

TALKING KEYBOARD:  Food surprise.

Ms. MURPHY:  Konzi, would you like a juice, or some M&Ms, or some sugar
cane?

TALKING KEYBOARD:  M&Ms.

Ms. MURPHY:  You like M&Ms? Okay. Konzi, is there any other food you'd


   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #1

like me to bring in the backpack?

TALKING KEYBOARD:  Ball.

Ms. MURPHY:  A ball? Okay.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] This conversation is the first time that the
chimp Konzi has ever spoken on the telephone, using his talking keyboard.
On the other end of the phone was Janine Murphy. It was a conversation with
someone not physically present, about events yet to take place. It's not
the kind of thing which scientists thought chimpanzees could do.

SUE SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH, Georgia State University:  In looking at what
Konzi can do, the kinds of utterances that he can emit without any specific
training, the kinds of really complex sentences that he can understand
without any training, make one suspect that in apes now, and certainly in
early hominids, there was a capacity for some form of primitive language.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] The idea that apes and humans might share a
common potential for language radically undermines the view that there is a
strict divide between humans and the animal world. Konzi is a bonobo [sp?],
a rare chimpanzee species, and the latest in a long line of apes to be used
by scientists to study language.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  You want to help get some sticks? Good. I have a
lighter in my pocket, if you need one. You can get it out.

[to interviewer] There's a lot of discomfort in accepting the fact
that apes really have language. Konzi's ability to understand suggests to
me that if he had a human vocal tract, he would be talking.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] This is probably the strongest claim ever made
for the linguistic capacity of a chimpanzee.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  Konzi, I need you to break this stick for Sue,
please.

[to interviewer] We, as human beings, have always considered
language our own domain, in that it is innate.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Most current theories of linguistics assume
that only humans can acquire language.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  You've got to put some water on the fire. Do you
see the water?

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Only humans are thought to have a brain
specially evolved to decode the complex rules of grammar.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  Good job.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Now, Konzi's abilities are forcing scientists


   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #2

to reexamine this fundamental idea. Experiments to discover whether apes
could acquire some form of human communication have created an academic
storm which has raged for decades. One of the most famous and controversial
attempts began nearly 30 years ago, in Reno, Nevada.

ALLEN GARDNER, University of Nevada:  On June 21st, 1966, an infant
chimpanzee arrived in our laboratory. We named her Washoe, for Washoe
County, the home of the University of Nevada. Because she was captured wild
in Africa, we will never know just where or when Washoe was born, but we
estimate that she was about 10 months old when she arrived in Reno.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Because chimps' vocal apparatus don't allow
them to make the sounds of human speech, psychologists Allen and Trixie
Gardner decided to teach Washoe American sign language, used by the deaf.
To help Washoe learn her signs, they used many techniques, including fun
and familiar games, repeated over and over again.

BEATRIX GARDNER, University of Nevada:  The first sign that we did
indeed teach to Washoe was the sign for more. More. More. More. More.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Natural chimpanzee gestures provided the basis
for some signs.

Ms. GARDNER:  Come. Open. Open hurry. Open. Open hurry. Open hurry.
Open. Open. Open. Good, good, good me. Yes, you're very good. Good go. Good
go. Where? You peekaboo. Out me. Open. Hide. Peekaboo. Okay. Come good
Washoe, come with me.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] The Gardners reported that Washoe could
eventually use 133 signs.

Ms. GARDNER:  Good Washoe and I are going to go.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] By then, Washoe was five years old.

Ms. GARDNER:  Good me.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Altogether, the Gardners collected more than 20
years of data. Their research covered all aspects of chimp development, but
it was the experiments in sign language which caught the imagination of
scientists and public alike. For the first time, an ape was using human
language, as these films clearly showed. But instead of sealing the ape
language debate, these images were to become the focus for a bitter
dispute.

In this sequence from 1974, Washoe is shown a baby doll inside a
cup. The camera seems to capture clear evidence of a chimpanzee sentence,
`Baby in my drink.' The problems began when another chimp began his career
as a language student, commuting daily to Columbia University in New York.
The researcher, Herb Terrace [sp?], was trying to replicate the Gardner
study using his own ape, called Nim Chimsky. The name was a lighthearted
dig at linguist Noam Chomsky, who believed language ability was confined to


   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #3

the human species. Terrace hoped to teach Nim to assemble signs into
sentences, using the rules of grammar, but the experiment did not turn out
quite as Terrace planned.

HERB TERRACE:  The main goal of Project Nim was to ask whether a
chimpanzee could create a sentence. I have concluded that, unfortunately,
the answer to that question is no.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] In this example, Nim seems to be using a
combination of signs to ask if he can hug the cat, but Terrace argued that
he was not actually making a sentence. By freezing the tape, you can see
that first the trainer makes the sign for hug, and just a few frames later,
Nim copies her. Next, the trainer signs cat, and shortly after, so does
Nim. Terrace concluded that chimps cannot produce language, they can just
imitate their trainers. Terrace also looked at some of the Gardners' films.
He decided that Washoe, too, was being led by her teacher. The Gardners
disagreed, and attacked Terrace's methodology.

Mr. GARDNER:  Well, Herb Terrace set out to prove that if you use
Skinnerian reinforcement you could teach a chimpanzee syntax. It was an
entirely different objective from ours. And when he failed, he declared
that everybody had failed.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] The Gardners also point out that in the
disputed example, Washoe's signs are quite different from her teacher's,
and so can't possibly be imitation. Susan is asking, `What that?' and
Washoe answers, `Baby in my drink.' This, they say, was a typical
conversation, and was interesting because of its similarity to ordinary
conversations between adults and young children.

Mr. GARDNER:  What we were interested in is not whether it fitted some
abstract theory of linguistics, but whether the chimpanzees could actually
communicate information to us, things we didn't already know.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] The Gardners continued their experiments with
four more chimps who, like Washoe, were all brought up as human children.
They tested their ability to communicate under controlled, double-blind
conditions. The chimp could see an image on the screen, but the
experimenter could not. Two independent observers had to agree for the sign
to be marked correct. The chimps showed reliable and consistent signing.
They had vocabularies above 100 signs, and each used them in their own
individual ways.

Ms. GARDNER:  Tatu, unlike the others, had black as her very favorite
color. We would go through magazines, looking for black things, and she
would go around naming black things for you. `That's black, and that's
black, and that is black.' And sometimes you could even tease her about
that. You'd go through a magazine and she'd point at it, at a picture, and
give you eye-to-eye contact - the question, `What is that?' - and for a
while, you played her game and you said, `It's black, it's black,' using
her favorite sign. But then you'd tease her and say it was red, and of
course she would correct you right away and say, `It's black. That's


   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #4

black.' It's a very nice conversational use of sign language. She knew the
answer, but she wanted you to talk about that.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] But the arguments over ape language persisted.

PATRICIA MARKS GREENFIELD, UCLA:  I think that there are a lot of
people who are very worried about us finding a relationship between humans
and animals, and they want there to be an absolute dividing line. What
Terrace did was again to say, `Yes, there is a line,' and I think people
responded very emotionally. And instead of it just being another point of
view where it would be interesting to do further research and see who was
right, Terrace or the people who had done the early work, such as the
Gardners, the whole field just closed down.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Eventually, the Gardners' funding ran out, and
their chimps were moved to another university. The early dreams of rearing
them to adolescence and beyond were never fulfilled. While the eight
researchers were battling over Washoe, Nim and definitions of language,
Patricia Greenfield was taking a fresh look at how human children use their
first words. If apes were a species on the threshold of developing
language, it seemed logical to compare them with a child at a similar
point. Her subjects were even closer to home. She studied her own children,
Matthew and Lauren. Here is Matthew with his mother now, and this is
Matthew, captured on film at the age of two as part of the study.

Ms. GREENFIELD:  I knew all about the Chomskyan approach to child
language development, which is an approach in which grammar is very
central, and the child is considered sort of like a little grammar machine,
or becoming a big grammar machine. And when my daughter Lauren started to
speak, what absolutely hit me was that this was not- what she was doing was
nothing like what they were describing. And in fact, what they were
describing were children combining words with words, using rules, but what
she was doing when she first started to talk was combining words with
things, with people, with gesture, all sorts of nonverbal elements.

Do you want another piece of cheese?


   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #5

LAUREN:  Yes.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Greenfield showed that these verbal and
nonverbal elements had a grammar of their own. This was the foundation on
which full-blown language would be built.

Ms. GREENFIELD:  Would you like some potato?

LAUREN:  Open.

Ms. GREENFIELD:  But that approach was very unpopular, and was very
heavily criticized, I think to a large extent because of the bias that
words are realer than these nonverbal elements, and that if somebody
expresses something in a word, you know it was really there.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Greenfield, too, looked at the Gardners' films
and saw that their chimps combined word signs with gestures to get their
meaning across. This could be the same precursor to language as she had
seen in children.

Ms. GREENFIELD:  Children can do something and it's called language.
Say a two-year-old does something, the researcher calls it child language.
A chimpanzee does the same thing, and it's not language. And I think the
reason is, there's a double standard, and what the double standard comes
from is the fact that we all know that children will ultimately grow up and
speak full-blown human language. We also know that chimpanzees will not
grow up and ultimately speak or produce full-blown human language, and so
there's a bias in the interpretation of the data.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] One attempt at getting data free from bias
involved Lana. Instead of sign language, she was given a computer keyboard,
with symbols to represent words. The keys she pressed were automatically
recorded, so there could be no argument over what she had said.

DUANE RUMBAUGH, Georgia State University:  The keys were made of
plastic. They were backlighted, and when they were touched they gained an
additional level of brilliance. Then a facsimile of the lexagram on the
surface of the key was produced in one of the projectors in a row above her
keyboard, and thus she was able to produce a string of lexagrams, if you
would, a primitive sentence. So this was the idea that launched the Lana
project and the idea which, in fact, has carried the research project with
chimpanzees and also with children across the time span now of better than


   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #5

20 years.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Duane Rumbaugh's computer technology and Sue
Savage-Rumbaugh's experience with signing chimpanzees led to a formidable
alliance which has given ape language research a fresh start. Here in
Atlanta, Sue Savage-Rumbaugh also had access to a different species of
chimpanzee. Previous research used the common chimpanzee, but she was
attracted by a number of differences found in the bonobo.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  This species is very, very rare and endangered,
found only in a small area of Zaire, and was only identified as a separate
species in 1929. They differ from the so-called common chimpanzee in a
number of ways. First of all, they have very stable large social groups in
which there are strong ties between males and females. They have a very,
very low level of aggression, and the society seems organized around caring
for young bonobos. Subjectively, it has an extraordinarily different feel
from other chimpanzees. The facial expressions of bonobos are much more
humanlike. The vocalizations of bonobos are much more frequent and much
higher-pitched. Common chimpanzees, although very wonderful creatures are,
compared to the bonobo, somewhat stand-offish. The bonobos like physical
contact, they like to be around people. Konzi's mother, who was a
wild-caught bonobo, is one of my very best friends.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Matada [sp?] was also the starting point for
what has been described as a groundbreaking project, to establish just how
well a chimpanzee can develop a competence with human language.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  We began with Matada, and she was not a very
adept pupil. Matada seemed to have many ways of communicating. She would
lead me around by the hand, she would vocalize, she would look off in the
distance and vocalize and gesture to me, and I had no question but what she
was trying to communicate with me. But she seemed to think lexagrams were a
rather ridiculous method of communication.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] But while Matada wasn't learning, her son Konzi
very rapidly caught on to the possibilities of the keyboard when he was
only a few months old. He learned that each abstract symbol on the board
meant something. Here, he pressed `bite.' What he wanted was a bite of what
Sue had in her mouth. His use of symbols was the equivalent of a young
child using single words.

Ten years later, Konzi easily identifies words spoken by complete
strangers, and can echo them by pressing the correct key on the lexagram
board, which now talks.

TALKING KEYBOARD:  Potato. Shoe. Give.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  The most exciting thing with Konzi was that he
began to use this keyboard very, very frequently. He clearly helped us
understand that he knew what those symbols meant. For example, if Konzi
said something like, `Chase apple,' he then would go over and pick up the
apple and start running away, and look back at me, showing me behaviorally


   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #6

that he knew what he had said, and gauging me.

When I first found out that Konzi was learning language without any
attempt on my part to really teach him, it was just as we were coming up
for funding renewal. Konzi was about three or three and a half years of
age, and the site visitors kept asking me, `Well, we understand that
Konzi's doing this, we've seen him do it, we hear you say that he's
learning how to understand words in some sentences, but how is he doing it?
How did you teach him to do it? How did you get him to do it?'

And I was at a complete loss. I said, `Well, parents really don't
know how they teach their children language. Why should I have to know how
I teach Konzi language? I just act normal around him and he learns it. I
don't really know what's going on in his head.' But they made me realize
that, unlike a parent, as a scientist I really had an obligation to figure
out how this was happening.

Konzi was an ape, not a child, and so I wanted to construct some
kind of environment that would make the usage of language real for Konzi.
And I asked myself, `Well, what do apes do in the wild?' Well, everyone
knows they travel around to different places and they find food and they
eat it, so I decided, because we had 55 acres of forest, to have certain
feeding areas, and to spend Konzi's days traveling from place to place,
talking about where we were going to go, what kind of food we were going to
eat, and what we were going to do next.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] The experiment continued with Konzi's sister,
and everyday use of English language.

RESEARCH ASSISTANT:  Panbenisha, will you do something for Sue?

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  And then you'll chase her.

RESEARCH ASSISTANT:  And then I'll chase you.

TALKING KEYBOARD:  Yes. No. Chase.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  Tell her yes, you'll chase her, but you want her
to do something for me later on.

RESEARCH ASSISTANT:  And I want you to do something for Sue.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  Now, we're going to do some things, and then Ryan
will chase you, okay, Panbenisha? Could you throw the kiwi? Good job, good
job. Thank you. You can have some jelly, it's all right. Let's go chase,
Ryan.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  What we have begun to learn is that chimpanzees
and, I suspect as well, children have an intrinsic desire to try to figure
out what's going to happen to them next. They would like their world to be
predictable, whether they're going for a walk in the woods, whether they're


   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #7

going down to visit the river. They'd sort of like to know, when they're
very young, in particular, what everybody is going to do next. And so,
because they really want to know this, there's an intrinsic desire to
figure out what the language is about.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  I've got the onions in a bowl. Let's go put them
in our hot food and we'll come back and turn the TV on. Put your onions
right here and put them in your bowl. Look, you spilled some of them.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] The chimps have responded well to such a rich
environment, and show an unprecedented grasp of spoken English.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  Let me get you a spoon to stir it with, Konzi.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] In addition to spoken language, they receive a
steady stream of nonverbal cues, attention-directing maneuvers, and
repetition, the hallmarks of the way we speak to young children.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  Here, will you wash this potato off for me? Could
you wash the potato?

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Sue Savage-Rumbaugh is convinced that the
combination of all these everyday interactions at an early age is essential
for the acquisition of language. Scientists call this process
enculturation.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  All right. Your noodles are going to go in here,
and you can have a few of them for your tummy. Konzi, could you turn the
water off again, please? Turn the water off, please.
NARRATOR:  [voice-over] In the kitchen, in Sue's company, Konzi
functions impressively. But does Konzi, like a human, really have the
ability to understand words? He can match spoken words with lexagrams, but
what do they mean to him? Can he make the connection between words and
things in the real world under test conditions?

A set of 16 photographs has been selected from the several hundred
which represent the nouns in his vocabulary.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  Okay, here's your pictures. Here's your pictures.
Watch now, they're coming around. All right. Konzi, see if you can find
mushrooms. Mushrooms. That's right, those are the mushrooms. Real good. Can
you turn back around? Okay. Now, now- okay, you're doing real good, Konzi.
See if you can find Mardu [sp?] the orangutan. Do you see Mardu? Good job.
Good job. See if you can find some melon. Melon. Melon. Thank you.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Konzi consistently scores better than 90
percent with such sets of pictures. A more rigorous test involves Konzi
wearing headphones, so only he can hear which picture is being requested.

RESEARCH ASSISTANT:  Konzi, give Sue bananas. That's right. Konzi, give
Sue ice. That's right. Konzi, give Sue pears. That's right. Konzi, give Sue


   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #8

potatoes.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] The tests on single words are convincing, but
how does Konzi deal with words in combination? How do researchers know that
he is not just doing the most obvious thing, given the range of
possibilities available to him? One of the hallmarks of human language is
its creativity, the possibility of expressing an infinite number of ideas.
We can understand the meaning of a sentence even if we have never heard its
words in that particular order ever before. Dr. Savage-Rumbaugh set out to
test whether the same applied to Konzi. There were 600 sentences in all,
designed to use different grammatical forms and to be as unpredictable as
possible.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  Give the doggie a shot. Good job. Put the keys in
the refrigerator. Good job. Thank you. Very nice. Okay. Go get the ball
that's outdoors.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] To do this, Konzi has to ignore another ball
which is indoors. That Konzi could comprehend and carry out such
instructions is interesting enough, but Dr. Savage-Rumbaugh went a step
further. How did Konzi's understanding of language compare with that of
human children? Janine Murphy volunteered her daughter, Alea [sp?], to take
part in an identical study at the age of two years. On some sentence types,
Konzi excelled; on others the child did better. But by and large, both were
correct about three-quarters of the time. So far as comprehension went,
child and chimp were on a par.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  Could you take my shoe off, please? You might
need to untie it.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] For both child and chimp, the ability to
understand outstripped their ability to produce language, the girl because
of her age, and Konzi because the chimpanzee vocal tract does not allow it.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  :  Now you can take it off. It will come off now.



   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #9

Mr. SAVAGE:  It is in what an individual comprehends that we use as the
basis for saying that individual is language-competent. If they can't speak
because of some anatomic reason, we don't say, well, they don't have
language. We say that they can't speak and they need some other kind of
medium for that.

TALKING KEYBOARD:  Want milk. Milk.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  You want some milk? I know, you always want some
milk when you're planning to be good.

TALKING KEYBOARD:  Key. Matada. Good.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  Oh, you want the key to Matada, and you're going
to be good. Well, I'm glad to hear that. I'm glad to hear that.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  For a long time, it was thought that only the
human brain could understand human speech. Now we know that Konzi's brain
can understand human speech, which says very clearly that something
important happened in our evolution. Our brains were able to understand
speech, and suddenly our mouths became able to produce speech.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] The sudden emergence of speech from a hominid,
which hitherto had, like the ape, only a potential for language, may be
linked with our unique anatomy.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  I suspect that there's something very, very
unique about the human bipedal posture and the human vocal laryngeal
apparatus. One of the things that we know it enables us to do is make
sounds like ga and ba and pa and da, sounds that we call consonants. Konzi
can't make these kinds of sounds. His sounds are mostly vowel sounds. And
if I try to talk to another person using only vowel sounds, they can't
understand me.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Konzi often tries to copy human speech, but
analysis of the voiceprints of human and bonobo shows the problem. The
human print shows the boundaries of the words clearly, where Konzi's are
blurred.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  We tried to invent a language for Konzi that was
composed only of vowel sounds, and we couldn't understand ourselves, which
tells you what consonants do for us. They wrap little packages around vowel
sounds. They are like edges around vowel sounds, and they help us tell our


   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #9

words apart, where one word stops and another word starts. And because we
could do that, we could invent languages. We could utter new sounds that
were discriminably different. We could go around and name all kinds of
things with words that sounded different to other individuals. And I think
this must have been a great turning point in the evolution of mankind. And
I think if you could give chimpanzees or bonobos that same ability today,
they would take off and they might follow a course that would be eerily
similar to that of our own species.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Research in areas other than language is
showing similar results. In Columbus, Ohio, Sarah Boyson is exploring the
way chimps handle numbers, and is finding capabilities never before
suspected.

SARAH BOYSON, Ohio State University:  Can you bring me one just like
this? That's the right one, huh-huh. It's just like that, isn't it? This
here is a little gumdrop. That was good.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Sarah Boyson previously worked with Sue
Savage-Rumbaugh. She uses nursery style methods of education with her
chimps to encourage the development of mathematical skills. Bobby is five
years old. In the wild, he would still be very dependent on his mother, and
only just weaned.

Ms. BOYSON:  Like that? No, they don't look alike. They don't look
alike.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] As with children, it takes patience and
repetition to convey key concepts.

Ms. BOYSON:  This one looks like that one. Oh-oh. That looks like this.
That has a mat. You are doing such a good job today. Look, here a red
gumdrop and a yellow jellybean, just for you. That's right, two things,
one, two things.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Bobby is learning to identify numbers of things
with Arabic numerals.

Ms. BOYSON:  One, you have to watch, one, two, three, four.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Using his touch screen, Bobby is able to
clearly indicate his choices. Technology is combined with essential human
contact.

Ms. BOYSON:  Similar to a child, you have to create a loving
environment in order to have a healthy, confident child. You have to create
a similar kind of relationship with a chimpanzee in order to have a
healthy, happy, confident chimpanzee student. What that buys you, when they
are a little older, is a willingness to negotiate and to persist at a task
when otherwise they might not be so excited about working further that day.

[to chimp] You ready for your [unintelligible] already? Okay. Now,


   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #10

watch what I'm going to do. I'm going to put a banana here, but look. How
much banana's left? A half of a banana, that's right. A half a banana is
left. And you get that. Oh, you want two things? No, I'm not giving you two
things. You just wait.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Using this approach, Boyson has demonstrated in
her chimpanzees some fairly sophisticated capabilities with numbers.

Ms. BOYSON:  Two, that's right. It's two oranges. Look, I have two
orange things for you, two orange jellybeans. This is ready. Yeah. Okay.
Now, look, I've got a half a banana here. Right here's a half. But watch
what I'm going to do with it. I'm going to only take part of a half. Look
there, I just have a little piece left. It's one-fourth. That's right,
one-fourth. Do you want that one-fourth? Okay.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] These chimps are able to extend their
capabilities beyond the tasks in which they were acquired. In one
particular experiment, Sheba exceeded all expectations.

Ms. BOYSON:  Very good. Okay.

[to interviewer] Sheba's goal was to move from place to place, pay
attention to how many oranges were there, come back to a starting location
where her numbers were displayed, and pick the answer that stood for the
total number of oranges that were hidden.

[to chimp] Are you paying attention? Let's try a real easy one. All
you have to do is remember. Yeah, okay. How many would you call that? How
many is that? How many oranges were in your bin, Shebe? Can you try and
show me? Four. Right. Have some candy. Go ahead. No, you can have some
candy. Oh, you got four candies out, too. That was very nice. And you've
never done that before.

[to interviewer] Now, remember, this is a task I thought she could
eventually learn. What we discovered, much to our surprise, was that the
very first time Sheba had the opportunity to do that, to go look at
different amounts of oranges in different places, she was able to give us
the total. How- how did she learn to do this when all we thought we taught
her to do was to associate Arabic numerals with quantities? Clearly, some
way out of that experience with simple counting, or simple association, if
you will, came an emergent capability.

[to chimp] Bob, we're about to start. I need your cooperation.
Thank you very much.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] The next test exploits the fact that a chimp
confronted by two piles of candy will automatically choose the larger one.
The question is, can their behavior be changed by learning the rules of the
game?

Ms. BOYSON:  Good, here we go. We'll do another turn. All right. This
time we'll put this many here, and we'll put this many here. See which- oh,


   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #11

you want to pick these first. Okay, well, we'll have to give these six to
Bobby. Sheba gets three and Bobby's happy.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] The animals are given a choice between two
different amounts of candy, and the rule is simple. If you pick an amount,
it goes to your partner, and you get whatever is left over. That's it.
That's the rule.

Ms. BOYSON:  Okay. One here. Sheba, which one's for Bob? Point. Oh, Bob
gets two. Good. All right. There you go. See, you get that one.

[to interviewer] So if you are aware of the rule, then in order to
get the most, the first amount you should pick should be the smallest
amount, right? Because then you get the biggest remainder.

[to chimp] I'm going to put this many here and this many here.
Which shall we give away? Oh, we're going to give away these. All right.
All right. Bob gets four, and Sheba only gets two.

[to interviewer] They don't get it. They can't do it. They can't
inhibit selecting the larger array immediately. And so even though it might
be very distressing, as soon as they do it they understand, `Oh, no, I did
it again. She's going to get more than me.' And as we explored further, it
occurred to us to try to substitute the numbers of candies with numbers.

[to chimp] Two for Bob.

[to interviewer] From the moment that occurred, the rules unfolded
as you would expect.

[to chimp] Which one are you going to pick, this one or this one?
Now give it to Bobby. You're going to pick two. Okay. We broke that up.

[to interviewer] And you could literally shift from trial to trial,
numbers, candy, candy, numbers, and her performance would go up and down.

[to chimp] Well, how about if you could choose between this and
this? Bob should get three. Okay. We'll give three to Bob. You're happy,
aren't you? One, two, three for Bobby. And Sheba, you get six.

[to interviewer] The introduction of the numbers completely
releases the animal from that very, very rigid automatic response of
selecting more, and allows them to use this cultural rule that we had
established. It was quite extraordinary.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Chimps do acquire complex skills in the wild,
but this happens slowly, over many years. Some groups have learned to use
stones as hammers and anvils to crack nuts. In Atlanta, they found that
Konzi was able to grasp such a skill with amazing ease by watching a
demonstration and then trying it for himself in the forest.

Konzi was also able to make his own tools after watching a


   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #12

demonstration by a visiting archaeologist. He went on to show particular
insight and creativity in his approach to problem-solving. He was presented
with this puzzle box, held closed by a strong rope. He quickly caught on to
the solution, and also found his own way of making a sharp tool by
throwing, rather than striking the stones together in his hand. His way was
just as effective. Konzi's ability to observe tool use and quickly adapt it
for his own purposes is very significant. This facility is not seen in wild
chimpanzees, only in those who have been exposed to human culture. Perhaps
we are seeing in a chimpanzee the same stages of learning that our
ancestors must have experienced.

Going back in time from the human species today, we see that some
three million years ago our ancestor might have looked something like this,
not very different yet from the way the bonobo chimps look today when they
walk upright, with hands free. Archaeology can reveal much about our own
past, but words leave no fossils, and scientists have to depend upon
comparisons between living species to draw conclusions about how our own
capacity for language might have come about. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh's findings
point to an origin of language which goes back several million years, and
may even predate human evolution.

To do this sort of work with great apes, you have to become part of
the group and win their respect. Some rules, like not jumping on the
researcher's head, have to be enforced, otherwise working with adult apes
would be too dangerous. Physically, humans are no match for chimpanzees.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  I'm not going to have it.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Here, young Tumuli [sp?] has broken the rule,
and Sue reprimands her. It is interesting how Konzi seems to intercede on
behalf of his younger sister. Konzi and Panbenisha have had intensive
contact with humans every day and have been shown to understand human
speech.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  Tumuli, some bark.



   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #13

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Young Tumuli was reared by her mother, and
shows no comprehension of spoken English.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  Tumuli, Tumuli. That's some bark. Thank you,
Panbenisha. Tumuli.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Sometimes it seems as though Konzi is able to
act as a kind of interpreter, showing his younger sister what the words
mean.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  Tumuli, could you slap Konzi? Tumuli, you, slap
Konzi. You slap Konzi. You slap Konzi. Tumuli, could you give Konzi a hug?
Tumuli, could you groom Konzi? He's asking you to groom him. Look, he put
your hand up there. Isn't that nice? Go ahead, groom Konzi. Look, he's
showing you.

Mr. RUMBAUGH:  Now, more so than ever, the data are so strong that
every reasonable scientist, every reasonable person should be willing to
conclude that yes, indeed, the chimpanzee does have not just the appearance
of language, but does have the competence for language, particularly if it
is reared from birth as though it is something it is not, namely, a human
child.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] So the more completely a chimpanzee is immersed
a child, the researcher seems to transmit the necessary knowledge through
the everyday process of caregiving. Treating a young ape as a human child
is natural enough, but extending all the trappings of human culture to
adult apes presents a number of practical problems. The chimps hand-reared
by the Gardners over 20 years ago now live at Central Washington
University, under the care of Roger and Debbi Fouts.

DEBBI FOUTS, Central Washington University:  They have four rooms and
five tunnels, and it could be deadly boring, but instead, we try to make
each day a unique, interesting day.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] These five chimps lived as a social group in
temporary accommodations on the third floor of the psychology building.
This is Washoe, the chimp who, 25 years ago, learned sign language in Reno.
She and the other Gardner chimps still communicate with the researchers in
sign language.

Ms. FOUTS:  During the day they have any manner of things to play with.


   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #13

They have buckets of Kool-Aid with hoses for straws. They can dip for
yogurt. They have dress-up clothes. They have brushes, toothbrushes.

[to chimp] You want what? You want a toothbrush?

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] Ape language researchers now believe that once
a chimp has become accustomed to a rich human environment, it would be a
cruel deprivation to lose it. These adult chimps could live for another 30
years or more. They'll require constant human care and attention.

RESEARCH ASSISTANT:  They have a lunchtime meal that is served to them.
They- if they would like some more - it's usually a vegetable kind of a
soup that has protein in it - they ask for more soup, and then they're
served more soup. We don't ever just throw bowls in. We don't necessarily
spoonfeed them. They are offered spoons and dishes to eat.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] English is spoken here, but sign language still
predominates between chimp and human. Debbi Fouts has published work
describing the signing between the chimps when no one else is present.
Students have observed how signs are used by the chimps to initiate
conversations. Before she was brought here, Washoe had already given birth
to two infants, neither of whom lived beyond a few weeks. The second baby
died after being taken away from her for medical treatment. It was Roger
Fouts's job to make Washoe understand what had happened.

ROGER FOUTS, Central Washington University:  I had to go back the next
morning, and she was very depressed, of course, and quite, quite alone, not
signing with anybody. And so I went in, and she came up to me, her eyes lit
up. She came up to me and she said, `Baby, holding, holding.' And it was a
question, she was saying, basically, `Where's my baby?' And I had to tell
her, I said, `He's dead. He's finished.' And with that, the baby sign
literally dropped into her lap, her head dropped, and she moved away into
the corner and stopped signing.

So we searched and searched and searched, and 10 days after his
death, we finally found a replacement. It was Lulis [sp?], he was 10 months
old. The next morning I went in and I signed, `Have baby.' And she
immediately started signing, `Baby, baby,' getting very excited, `Baby,
baby, baby, baby, baby,' slapping her hands, bipedal, hair up, extreme
excitement. And then when she signed, `My baby,' I knew we were in trouble.
I knew she misunderstood me. So I went out and got him, 10-month-old, he
was on my chest, came in, and then went in the enclosure with her, and when
I got about maybe two or three feet away she got a good look at him. And
all this time she's signing, `Baby, baby, baby, baby,' and she gets a good
look at him and she just sits down. And then she looks back up, and the she
signs, `Baby.' Obviously, she'd realized it wasn't her baby any longer, it
was a strange baby.

That night she tried to sleep with him like her own baby. She
always took her to bed with her and slept with her, and so on, and slept
with him. She tried to do that with Lulis, too, and he would have nothing
to do with it. He laid down on his own end of the bench, and when she'd


   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #14

come he'd move, until finally she let him. And then, at 4:00 in the
morning, she woke up, went into a bipedal swagger, banged the enclosure and
signed, `Come, hug,' slapping her hands, making a loud noise, and with that
he jumped up out of a sound sleep and leapt into the nearest hairy arms
that were available, which were hers, and she literally engulfed him and
lay back down. And from that moment on, they were inseparable.

[to chimp] Washoe, Washoe, hey, hey, what's this?

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] From the time Lulis arrived, the researchers
deliberately restricted their signing to Washoe, to test whether or not
Lulis would learn sign language without human intervention. By the time he
was five, they reported that Lulis had learned a total of 51 signs.

Mr. FOUTS:  Lulis.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] In May, 1993, the chimps were finally moved out
of the psychology building into a new specially designed home.

Mr. FOUTS;  If you want good research, you have to have proper care.
You owe them that, at least. They're not volunteers, they don't want to do
this. We're still at the notion of treating them like a hairy test tube,
and that's an abomination. They are not hairy test tubes. They are
thinking, feeling, emotional beings with wants, desires in a life, just
like we do.

NARRATOR:  [voice-over] As this research proceeds, it could have some
powerful implications. If chimpanzees show they can acquire human language,
use it to communicate, and manipulate abstract symbols like words and
numbers, then the possibility is that chimp and human minds have a great
deal more in common than we thought.

Ms. GARDNER:  The uses and misuses to which we put animals certainly
have to do with lines that we draw differentiating ourselves from them. I'm
certain that even within human populations, when we behave in a way that is
not humanitarian, it is because we draw a distinction. `If these people are
not like me, they don't have the same rights.' By drawing a continuity, I
think we behave in a more human fashion to all concerned.

Mr. GARDNER:  The reason why this research has become so controversial
is that it's part of a very long battle, not the battle over whether human
beings are descended from chimpanzees, but the battle over whether the same
laws of nature apply to mice and leopards and chimpanzees and human beings.
Most of the history of modern science has been a retreat from the notion of
human speciality, and people more or less have accepted this now about
blood and bone, but behavior, emotion, cognition, that's very hard. You can
see the history of science of behavior as a slow, retreating battle with
separatists drawing the wagons in an ever-tightening circle. And right now
the last great stand seems to be made over language.

Dr. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH:  If we take seriously the fact that the chimpanzee
has an understanding of language and an ability to produce language, it


   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #15

raises all kinds of other questions. Are they conscious? How should we
treat them? Are they rational? Should they have chimpanzee rights? And
we're not prepared to answer all of these questions. We don't really know.

Written and Directed by  JENNY JONES

Video Editors  PAULINE BENNELL, TERRY BENNELL

Camera  GILL BEASLEY, COLIN SKINNER

Sound  ELAINE DRAINVILLE

Narrator  DON WESCOTT

Dubbing Mixer  PAUL HARRIS

Music  AL LETHBRIDGE

For NHK Japan

Producer  MASARU IKEO

Director  GENYA NIIO

Editor  FUMIO IKESHITA

Camera  HARUKI IDA

For Orlando Productions

Executive Producer  MIKE TOMLINSON

For Horizon

Editor  JANA BENNETT

Special Thanks

Japan Monkey Center

Jerome Bruner

Patricia M. Greenfield

Allegra May

Chris Smart, Central Washington University

Media Services, University of Oklahoma

Language Research Center, Georgia State University



   Nova (PBS) #2105                                              Page #16

Primate Cognition Project, Ohio State University

Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute,

Central Washington University

For NOVA

Director of Acquisitions  MELANIE WALLACE

Associate Producer  LISA MIROWITZ

Production Assistant  CLARENCE EWING

Sound Mix  RICHARD BOCK

Online Editors  DAN WATSON, STEVE BARACSI

NOVA Main Title Sequence R/GREENBERG ASSOCIATES

NOVA Theme MASON DARING, MARTIN BRODY

Closed Captioning THE CAPTION CENTER

Production Secretaries QUEENE COYNE, LAURIE CAHALANE

Post Production Assistant RONA REMAL

Special Projects Associate CARLA M. DeLUCA

Post Production Associate JENA ADAMS

Post Production Supervisor  ALISON M. WHITE

Publicity ANGELA MARCANO LIFSEY, JOHANNA BAKER