Herrmann, E., Call, J., Hernandez-Lloreda, M. V., Hare, B., & Tomasello, M. (2007). Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cogntion: The cultural intelligence hypothesis. Science, 317, 1360-1366.

Participants included 105 children 53F, 52M age 30 months and apes (orangutans & chimps) -- at various ages 3 to 21 years. (Once again its 2 year-old humans vs the "'apes."

The tasks -- physical and social-- in the battery of tests are shown below . Results, plotted here, show clearly the big difference between human children and various apes is the advantage humans have in the social domain.

Movie S1
Task Spatial Memory
Two rewards are placed under two of three cups and the child has to locate them.

Movie S2
Task Spatial Memory
Two rewards are placed under two of three cups and the ape has to locate them.

Movie S3
Task Object Permanence; Item Single Displacement
The child has to track a reward after invisible displacement.

Movie S4
Task Object Permanence; Item Single Displacement
The ape has to track a reward after invisible displacement.

Movie S5
Task Rotation; Item 360°
The child has to track a reward after a rotation manipulation.

Movie S6
Task Rotation; Item 180° Side
The ape has to track a reward after a rotation manipulation.

Movie S7
Task Transposition; Item Double Baited Transposition
The child has to track a reward after its location changes.

Movie S8
Task Transposition; Item Double Baited Transposition
The ape has to track a reward after its location changes.

Movie S9
Task Relative Numbers
The child has to discriminate two different quantities.

Movie S10
Task Relative Numbers
The ape has to discriminate two different quantities.

Movie S11
Task Addition Numbers
The child has to discriminate two different quantities while adding a third quantity.

Movie S12
Task Addition Numbers
The ape has to discriminate two different quantities while adding a third quantity.

Movie S13
Task Noise; Item Noise Full
The child has to understand the causal relationship between hidden rewards and the noise
they produce.

Movie S14
Task Noise; Item Noise Full
The ape has to understand the causal relationship between hidden rewards and the noise
they produce.

Movie S15
Task Shape; Item Board
The child has to understand the causal relationship between hidden rewards and their
effect on the appearance of the board.

Movie S16
Task Shape; Item Board
The ape has to understand the causal relationship between hidden rewards and their effect
on the appearance of the board.

Movie S17
Task Tool Use
The child has to use a stick to retrieve a reward that is out of reach.

Movie S18
Task Tool Use
The ape has to use a stick to retrieve a reward that is out of reach.

Movie S19
Task Tool Properties, Item Side
The child has to understand functional and non-functional tool properties.

Movie S20
Task Tool Properties, Item Rip

The ape has to understand functional and non-functional tool properties.


Movie S21
Task Social Learning, Item Balloon Tube
The child has to solve a simple but not obvious problem after observing a demonstrated
solution.

Movie S22
Task Social Learning, Item Stick Tube
The ape has to solve a simple but not obvious problem after observing a demonstrated
solution.

Movie S23
Task Comprehension, Item Point
The child has to understand a communicative pointing cue that indicates a reward's
hidden location.

Movie S24
Task Comprehension, Item Point
The ape has to understand a communicative pointing cue that indicates a reward's hidden
location.

Movie S25
Task Pointing Cups
The child has to produce a communicative gesture in order to retrieve a hidden reward.

Movie S26
Task Pointing Cups
The ape has to produce a communicative gesture in order to retrieve a hidden reward.

Movie S27
Task Attentional State; Item Away
The child has to produce a communicative gesture that accounts for the attentional state
of the recipient.

Movie S28
Task Attentional State; Item Towards
The ape has to produce a communicative gesture that accounts for the attentional state of
the recipient.

Movie S29
Task Gaze Following; Item Head & Eyes
The child has to follow the gaze direction of the experimenter to a target.

Movie 30
Task Gaze Following; Item Head & Eyes

The ape has to follow the gaze direction of the experimenter to a target.

Movie 31
Task Intentions; Item Trying
The child has to understand what the experimenter intended to do while being
unsuccessful.

Movie 32
Task Intentions; Item Trying
The ape has to understand what the experimenter intended to do while being
unsuccessful.