Limber 512-97    exam 1   answer key                     p.   1

essay question- (2 to 4 pages; sketches, lists ok)

2.  A fundamental theme or principle developed by Darwin and implicit in much of your reading and class discussion, is that the behavior of a species is very much related the morphology (body features)  of the species.  Put another way, one can "read" the

 morphology (those features) of an organism and make an educated guess as to the behavior of that individual. Using at least two primate examples (2.5 points each), discuss this idea.  Why should it be a more or less valid principle (2.5)? What do you see

 as its limitation; for example, how might one go wrong (2.5) using this principle?

answer  worth 10 points 
(5)Examples (two) might include cones->color vision; grasping foot-> arboreal life; or large canine teeth -> predator
(2.5)Why? Since natural selection operates to "fit" organisms to specific environments or niches, bodies (and behaviors) should be shaped to conform efficiently to those niches (or something to that effect.)
(2.5)Limitation?  A form can have several functions only one of which as matter of evolutionary history was/is the basis for that form, e.g. the sharp canines in gorillas may have evolved for social dominance displays and occasional fights among silverbac

ks. Or, a form may be a "leftover" from an ancestral function, e.g. cones in a nocturnal animal.

short answers --use examples! (4 points each)
1. How might the concept of "synergy" apply to human evolution?
(interrelationship of several variables reacting on each other, eg. brain expansion relates to prematurity of infants, dependency  and immobility of female, hence closer social structure, etc....)

2.  Describe one important difference between the life styles of a male orangutan and a male gorilla in their natural habitat.
(male orangs: solitary, no female/offspring contact except during short mating period every 4-5 years or more; gorillas just the opposite -highly social, protective of females and young)

3. Explain with an example the concept of heterochrony.
(different timing of developmental features, e.g relative differences in growth rates of human/chimp head/jaw bones)

4. Evolutionary relatedness among the large primates is based on a number of different types of evidence.  Briefly give three of these.
(DNA, fossils, comparative behavior, anatomy & biochemistry)

5.  Darwin's theory of "Descent with modification" has four main parts to its argument.  List these. (See EHE or notes)

6.  Briefly describe the significance of one of these individuals for the study of primates and/or evolution:  Tyson (1650-1708); Linnaeus (Carl von Linne' 1707-1778); Lamarck (1744-1829) (see Greene reading)

7.  A. R. Wallace wrote On the tendency of varieties to depart indefinitely from the original type. in 1858.  What is the most implication of this paper for the then current concept of animal "species?"
(Species are NOT fixed but potentially changing, becoming extinct)

multiple choice (pick the one "Best" --most specific answer)
What is NOT a common feature of all non-human primates?
a- forward facing eyes
xb- tails
c- grasping forelimbs
d- high degree of maternal care for young
Recent evidence such as that shown in the "Children of Eve" video suggests that anatomically modern humans evolved about _____ years ago.
a-10,000	xb- 100,000	c- 1,000,000   d- 10,000,000
The fact that genetically quite different species may share a very similar body shape, e.g. penguins, sharks, dolphins, is an example of evolutionary _________?
a- whimsy
b- psychology
xc- convergence
d- variation
The most difficult problem in breeding gorillas in zoos as seen in "Gorilla" is ___.
a- obtaining the natural foods of gorillas
b- competition among the silverbacks
xc- lack of adequate "mothering" experiences in females raised in captivity
d- finding a suitable male interested in mating.
Non-human primates today are primarily found in warmer climates relatively close to the equator.  The northernmost dwelling primate seen in "Life in the Trees" was the
a- orangutan	b- tarsier	c- gorilla	xd Japanese macaque
Primates generally, and humans in particular, differ from other mammals in that they retain many of their juvenile, even fetal, characteristics into adulthood.  This phenomenon is known as ___?
a- differentiation
d-mosaic evolution
In  his 1646 letter to the Marquess of Newcastle, ___________ argued that "..all the things which dogs, horses, and monkeys are taught to perform are only expressions of their fear, their hope, or their joy; and consequently they can be performed with any

 thought.  Now it seems to me very striking that the use of words, so defined, is something peculiar to human beings."
a- Charles Darwin
b- Montaine
xc- Rene Descartes
d- Thomas Acquinas
What is the best interpretation of the concept of "allometry?"
xa-. a change in shape of a body feature correlated with an increase or decrease in body size.
b-.  the tendency for large primates  to live in social groups
c-  the growth in ontogeny of long forelimbs
d-.  the tendency for monogamous males to be nearly the same size as their female mates.

Recent DNA analyses suggest that humans and chimpanzees had a common ancestor about  ______ million years ago.
a- one	x2- five	3- fifteen	4- twenty
Which is NOT a typical feature of an orangutan life style or behavior?
a-  Orangs are tree dwelling Asian apes.
xb-  Orangs are intelligent, social apes that live in groups of 25 to 50 individuals.
c-  Orangs have a very slow reproductive rate; females typically bearing new infants every five years or more. in their lives.
d-  Orangs are intelligent foragers, spending more than 10 hours each day obtaining their diet of fruit and vegetation.
e- all of the above ARE typical of orangutan life
One process for evolutionary change is a change in the onset or timing of development, so that the appearance or rate of development of a feature in a descendant's ontogeny is either accelerated or retarded relative to the appearance or rate of developmen

t of the same feature in an ancestor's ontogeny.  This process is known as ___________.
xa- heterochrony
b- recapitulation
c- paedomorphosis
d- allometry
From the evidence available at present, which of the following human specializations seems to have evolved first?
xa- bipedalism
b- relatively large brain even for a primate
c- human language
d- the relatively large body of contemporary humans