[Note:  Frans de Waal suggested we provide a complete listing
for the Scientific American program PRIMATE TIME PRIMATES. Jill
Singer, with Chedd-Angier, the Production Company for the program,
kindly supplied us with this fuller description.  A loan copy
will be available from the WRPRC Audiovisual Archive after the
program airs.]

                 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN FRONTIERS 
                      PRIME TIME PRIMATES 

                   Airdate: February 8, 1995 
              (Check local listings for airing time)
 
                          SHOW OUTLINE 

1. DO CHIMPS HAVE CULTURE? 
 
To examine the question of culture, Yerkes psychologist Michael
Tomasello studies how children and chimpanzees learn to use
tools. He has discovered a crucial difference: children will
watch someone using a tool, and then imitate that person's exact
method of tool use. Chimps will observe someone using a tool,
explore the tool themselves, and then figure out their own method
of using it. Each chimp will "reinvent the wheel," making
cultural transmission almost impossible. 
 
2. DO PRIMATES SHARE? 
 
In his experiments with capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees, Yerkes
Frans de Waal has discovered that there is a Golden Rule among
primates: they do unto others as they would have others do unto
them. They practice reciprocity: if monkey A shares food with
monkey B on one day, then monkey B will share with monkey A the
next. And food is not the only currency in this barter system: if
monkey A grooms monkey B, then monkey B is more likely to share 
food with monkey A. 
 
3. DOES CROWDING LEAD TO AGGRESSION? 
 
Primatologist Peter Judge challenges the common assumption that
crowding breeds aggression: in his study of rhesus monkeys, he
has found that crowding breeds coping. He observed 3 groups of
rhesus monkeys in 3 different population densities: free-ranging
monkeys on Morgan Island, South Carolina; a captive group living
in a large enclosure, and a group housed in a small cage. The
population density in the cage was 6000 times greater than on the
Island. But the rate of aggression hardly increased at all. 
What did change were the "coping behaviors," like appeasement, 
reconciliation, and grooming. 
 
4. NEWBORN CHIMPS 
 
At the nursery of the Yerkes Primate Center, Kim Bard is trying
to figure out the best way to raise newborn chimps who cannot be
raised by their mothers. Humans provide 4 hours a day of close
physical contact; in addition, juvenile chimps are trained to
nurture the newborns. 
 
5. THE AYE-AYE 

The aye-aye, a lemur native to Madagascar, is considered the most
endangered primate species. It is a very bizarre creature, with
bat-like ears, huge bulging eyes, rat-like snout, and a middle
finger twice as long as its other digits. At the Duke University
Primate Center, a full-scale effort is being made to save 
the aye-aye, and the first one was born in captivity last year.
Psychologist Carl Erickson is now studying the unique
intelligence and sensory perception of this unusual animal. 
 
6. CAN CHIMPS DO ARITHMETIC? 
 
Sally Boysen at Ohio State University has demonstrated that
chimps have a surprising ability to understand numbers. Her
chimps can count, use Arabic numerals, do addition problems, and
even understand fractions. 
 
7. BEING THE LEADER ISN'T ALL IT'S CRACKED UP TO BE 
 
On Cayo Santiago Island in Puerto Rico, John Berard studies the
rigid dominance hierarhcy of rhesus monkeys. And he has made an
intriguing discovery: females prefer to mate not with the
dominant male, but with wandering, low-ranking strangers instead.
He watches mating behavior and then performs DNA analysis to
confirm his findings. He also studies the offspring of dominant
females and has found that here too, dominance is not always an
advantage. These youngsters, who are treated like royalty within 
the family group, fare poorly when they are forced to migrate.