primate parenting, attachment

parental investment


reproductive rates of humans due to

diet, increased MPI, decreased nursing

factors in maternal care

early maternal experience
number of offspring


primary attachment to mother

separation elicits distress cries and then depression with potential long term effects, with various physiological consequences, e.g. increase in heartrate, anxiety response.


peers, aunts, etc.

effects on other behaviors

cognitive ability as adult
sexual/social relationships as adult

species differences?

humans (some variation in primary caretakers)
Harlow's monkeys

Therapists treating children separated from their parents during wartime noted that after initial signs of distress, the children became depressed with various symptoms of apathy, failure to grow, etc. (See John Bowlby's 1969 Attachment and Loss.) Harlow, in his well-known "mother love" studies looked into attachment and its long term effects on rhesus monkeys. Normal monkeys show the patterns below at all stages of life. Monkeys deprived of normal mothering showed serious deficits as fearful, depressed juveniles and inadequate adults.

other NHPs--similar?

I imagine other NHPs would show similar depressive effects of separation from mothering.