1. primate mind:Tools, Language, Consciousness (TLC)
    1. intelligence as adaptive ability
      1. general and specific adaptations
        1. the answer is a complex "both"
    2. tools as adaptive devices
      1. primates as generalists
      2. tool use --broadly considered --in mammals
        1. nonhuman primates
        2. ideas as tools
          1. culture and language as tools
  2. 6. technology: tool use in primates
    1. the importance of tool use
      1. practical and theoretical,
        1. mythology of tool-use
    2. does tool-use imply intelligence? (Bryne)
      1. (capuchins (cebus) monkeys)
    3. tools as temporary adaptations
      1. primates as generalists
        1. hand (and eye/brain) as basic adaptations
        2. tools as artifactual specializations
      2. 3 contexts in wild
        1. food
        2. threat
        3. grooming
      3. common chimps most noted tool users in wild
        1. minimal tool construction
      4. all seem capable in captivity
        1. shows role of natural environment
        2. shows role of cultural environment
    4. acquisition of tool use (2 videos, Tomasello)
      1. social learning: priming, or imitation?
      2. wild western chimps
      3. humans
        1. unique in perception of intent or goals?
        2. universal social learning
        3. universal tool building
      4. significance of ape tool use in captivity?
      5. tool use by captive primates
    5. evolution of tool use
      1. hominid tool users
        1. Homo habilis (handy man) 2.5 mya
        2. recent discoveries of throwing spears 400,000 y
      2. prerequisites to tool use
        1. causal understanding of the world
          1. object permanence etc.
          2. means-end
        2. dexterity: timing and coordination
        3. foresight and planning
      3. positive feedback relating tool use to brain
        1. size of brain
        2. brain specialized circuits
          1. especially coordination of eye-hand activity with planning for future
        3. the importance of environmental stress
      4. availability of hand etc.
        1. handedness in primates
      5. the "problem" of over capacity in primates
        1. possible answers to the "problem" 223
    6. generic exam question
    7. video scenes of NHP tool use
      1. Galdikas' orangs
      2. lots of ant fishing in Goodall
      3. Tomasello (reading and video)
      4. Kortlandt's throwing chimps
      5. Kanzi stone chipping
      6. Kohler's tasks
      7. Miles orang