1These notes only scratch the surface of the psychobiological literature on dreams and scarcely touch the philosophical ideas, eg. Descartes, Wittgenstein, Malcom, etc. nor many of those of your grandma. As of now, I haven't time to prepare a full bibliography; the references here are the major ones in my reading, along with a survey of entries in "PsychLit" abstracts from 1986-1994 using the key words "dreams and language." These notes are really a dialogue with myself, trying to evaluate the evidence. I only cleaned them up a bit to make it clearer whose ideas are being expressed. As always, think for yourself! 9/19/94

[2]Curiously, Jones (1961/1963, p.228) cites a letter by Freud's son Ernst (June 20, 1898) noting how his father used to come to meals, from the arbor where he had been writing (Interpretation of Dreams, "as if he were sleepwalking" and "altogether gave the impression of being in a dream."

[3]This sounds much like H. L Teuber and "corollary discharge!" It becomes the essence of Hobson's (1988) "activation-synthesis" model of dreams.

[4]Freud goes to treat dreams as "a picture-puzzle, a rebus" and not a "pictorial composition." This, so far, is as close as he comes to expressly treating dreams as heiroglyphs.

[5]He also concludes from this "Dreaming must therefore be not only psychologically intriguing but biologically important. p.5" This is surely a great inferential leap!

[6]Both Winson and Hobson are reporting the work and conjectures of Roffwarg et al (1966).

[7]JUST WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP OF JUNG'S ASSOCIATIVE METHOD TO FREUD'S?

[8]Sperber's theory is referenced "UBer den Einfluss sexueller Momente auf Entestehung und Entwicklung der Sprache." Imago, 1, 405, (1912). See Freud (1938), p.370 where he also refers to Schubert :"the symbolic identity extends beyond the linguistic identity." G. H. von Schyubert (1814) Die Symbolik des Traumes, Bamberg.

[9]This seems to be an increasingly common theme, perhaps first articulated by Evarts (1960) who found that certain brain cells became more active during sleep and that suggested sleep functioned to reorganize brain information. Winson does not cite Evarts.