2.1 Manipulation of representations to some end or goal
2.2 on representations examples (or maybe we should ask, what are they?)
2.2.1 Earliest existing human reps about 35,000 years old- can language be much older?
2.2.2 Writing only 5000 years old (what about language itself? 100k? 35k?)
2.3 Ways to find out about thinking
2.3.0.....Studies of contemporary "thinkers" (e.g. Wright Bros)
2.3.1 Ontogeny (development, e.g. Piaget)
2.3.2 Phylogeny (evolution/history)
2.3.3 Comparative (other species), do birds, rats, apes and ants "think?" What about infants?
2.6.2 Double helix (Crick & Watson discovery of DNA structure)
2.6.3 ....chemical molecules generally
2.7.1 Availability of words
2.7.2 Length of expressions (syllables and working memory?) affects W memory.
2.7.3 Translation – even if accurate – may be insufficient
2.7.4 and of course effects of associations or in more modern terms, priming.
2.8.2 English vs Hopi
Compare time descriptions-- this Hopi translation "Then indeed, the folllowing day, quite early in the morning at the hour when people pray to the sun, around that time then he woke up the girl again. p.63) vs. "he woke up the girl again at 6:15am." And what about seconds, femtoseconds, and attaseconds?
2.8.3 Published Texts impact-- does language x have a word for it? The process of lexicalization.
4.1 “stop” example
4.2 Praat (google for your own copy)
5.1 Role of movement in all communicaton--all species communicate
5.2 Goodall on language and its effect on humans
5.3 ...David Premack
5.3.1 What’s wrong here?
5.3.2 Premack later was responsible for the concept of ‘theory of mind’ – found in 4-5 year old humans but not apes. Is language responsible?
5.3.3 ...Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Malotki's research