1             We can't address the question about the role of language in thought without a sense of what is language and what is thought. We are learning about language but what about thought?

2             What is thinking?

2.1         Manipulation of representations to some end or goal

2.2         on representations examples (or maybe we should ask, what are they?)

2.2.1        Earliest existing human reps about 35,000 years old- can language be much older?

2.2.2        Writing only 5000 years old (what about language itself? 100k? 35k?)

2.3         Ways to find out about thinking

2.3.0.....Studies of contemporary "thinkers" (e.g. Wright Bros)

2.3.1        Ontogeny (development, e.g. Piaget)

2.3.2        Phylogeny (evolution/history)

2.3.3        Comparative (other species), do birds, rats, apes and ants "think?" What about infants?

2.4         Piaget, Kohler, Vygotsky

2.5         Types of representations

2.5.1        Propositions

2.5.2        Language

2.5.3        Imagery

2.5.4        Motor?

2.5.5        auditory

2.6         Modeling—thinking in external representations

2.6.1        Architects

2.6.2        Double helix (Crick & Watson discovery of DNA structure)

2.6.3 ....chemical molecules generally

2.7         How language might influence thinking (not to say "cause"...)

2.7.1        Availability of words

2.7.2        Length of expressions (syllables and working memory?) affects W memory.

2.7.3        Translation – even if accurate – may be insufficient

2.7.4 and of course effects of associations or in more modern terms, priming.

2.8         Availability of brief expressions is probably very important in thinking

2.8.1        E=mc2

2.8.2        English vs Hopi

Compare time descriptions-- this Hopi translation "Then indeed, the folllowing day, quite early in the morning at the hour when people pray to the sun, around that time then he woke up the girl again. p.63) vs. "he woke up the girl again at 6:15am." And what about seconds, femtoseconds, and attaseconds?

2.8.3        Published Texts impact-- does language x have a word for it? The process of lexicalization.

3 Is thinking conscious? What does that mean? We can report or describe it? At the very least, language and appropriate words that "fit" the thought-- quickly enough-- may be necessary for us to become aware of what we think!

(This does not mean consciousness or language is necessary for thought though it may facilitate it via reflection on it.)

4             Levels of language description

4.1         “stop” example

4.2         Praat (google for your own copy)

5             Language video (watch for these points)

5.1         Role of movement in all communicaton--all species communicate

5.2         Goodall on language and its effect on humans

5.3 ...David Premack

5.3.1        What’s wrong here?

5.3.2        Premack later was responsible for the concept of ‘theory of mind’ – found in 4-5 year old humans but not apes.  Is language responsible?

5.3.3 ...Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Malotki's research