Some descriptions of Anthropoid creatures (1600-2000)

(originally based on Greene, 1959, p.199 and currently in need of upgrading to include the many non-human primates contributing to human knowledge -- often at considerable costs to themselves!)

Chimpanzee

Orang-utan

Gorilla

Gibbon

others

   

1613 (1635) Battel's account of the gorilla?

   

1641 Tulip's "Indian Satyr"

       
 

1658 de Bondt's Homo sylvestris

     

1699 Tyson's "pygmy"

       
       

1735 Linnaeus on the satyr and tailed men

1738 Scotin's figure

       

1758 Edwards' "man of the woods"

     

1758 Linnaeus Homo troglodytes

Chimpanzee

Orang-utan

Gorilla

Gibbon

others

       

1760 Hoppius' Homo lucifer

1766 Buffon's jocko (citing Tulp, Tyson)

 

1766 Battell's story retold by Buffon

1766 Buffon's description and figure

 
 

1776 Vosmaer's small orang

 

1769-84 Good descriptions by several writers

 
 

1779-82 Campter on the orang

     
 

1796-98 Wurmb's account with Geoffroy's comment on it

     

1798 Cuvier distinguishes the chimpanzee from the orang, classifies "Wurmb's ape" as a baboon

       
 

1832 Cuvier classifies "Wurmb's ape" as an orang

     

1835 Owen gives a full account of both the chimpanzee and orang-outan, infant and adult

"Tommy" appears at the London Zoo

1837 Darwin visits "Jenny" at the London Zoo. "Let man visit the ouran-outang in domestication... see its intelligence... Man in his arrogance thinks himself a great work... More humble and I believe true to consider him created from animals." (Notebooks)

     

Chimpanzee

Orang-utan

Gorilla

Gibbon

others

   

1847 Savage and Wyman describe the gorilla

   
         
         
         

1892 Garner records chimp "speech" in Africa

 

1902 The mountain gorilla distinguished from the lowland species

   

Chimpanzee

Orang-utan

Gorilla

Gibbon

others

1909 Peter assessed at the Psychological Clinic

Garner obtains Susie for the NY Zoological Gardens.

       

1913-1917 Kohler discovers "insight" in Sultan at the Prussian anthropoid station on Tenerife.

       
Leyton, A. S. F., & Sherrington, C. S. (1917). Observations on the excitable cortex of the chimpanzee, orangutan, and gorilla. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology, 11, 135-222. Following up on similar work with dogs and other mammals, this led to Penfield's mapping the human cortex and Fulton and Jacobsen's (1935?) exploratory lobotomy on Becky.
Joni lives with Russian psychologist Nadia Kohts from 1913-1916      

1916 Yerkes calls for systematic study of apes

Chimpanzee

Orang-utan

Gorilla

Gibbon

others

Gua moves in wiith the family of American psychologist, Kellogg, ca 1930

     

1924 Taung child skll and brain endocast -- a chimp sized hominid brains

1929 Bonobo gets recognition as distinct species.       Post-war biomedical concerns lead to creation of 7 NIH regional primate centers around 1960.
Meshie, 1932       Harlow starts his primate research in Madison, Wisconsin at the Vilas Park Zoo with Tristan and Isolde, two Hamadryas baboons.

Lucy and Becky lead the way to ten thousand lobotomies, 1935.

Vicki learns to say "cup"-- more or less!

     

1981 Bipedal 3 million year old fossil "Lucy" found

chimps Ham and Enos -- USAF space primates 1961        

Chimpanzee

Orang-utan

Gorilla

Gibbon

others

198x DNA indicates chimps and humans had a common ancestor 5-7mya and share over 90% of genes.