The somewhat obscure German scientist, Weismann around 1885 discovered that _____ . This discovery hastened the demise of Lamarckism.
a- rat tails became shorter after 20 or more generations of cutting them off.
b- Natural selection operated across many different species
c- Germ cells, the egg and sperm cells, were not affected by any activities the body engaged in.
d- DNA was packed into the form of a helix in all species.
Kohler discovered “insight” in a few of his apes. This placed those apes ___in Piaget’s stages of cognitive development devised from research on children.
a- at early formal operations
b- at the early concrete operations
c- at the end of the sensorimotor period
d- nowhere near human children at any stage
As seen in the recent Language video, what best describes a pidgin communication system?
a- a new grammatically complete human language created by children from the word fragments of several languages spoken by their parents.
b- the dialect spoken by Elvis Presley as a youth
c- the use of word fragments without grammar drawn from several languages used when there is no common language.
d- the vocalizations used by common avian species of doves and pigeons.
Piaget described the development of human children from birth through the teen years as sequence of stages in which certain cognitive skills and concepts could be observed. The concepts of trial and error learning and object permanence, of interest in comparing non-human primates with children, first appear in the ____ stage of development.
c- concrete operational
d- formal operational
The false-belief test is used to assess a child’s
a-development of a ‘theory of mind.’
b-development of object permanence
c-development of grammatical structure
d-development of a myelinated corpus callosum
Dunbar's reading in TO reports (e.g Fig 7.1) a positive relationship between ____ and relative brain size in primates.
a- group size
b- foraging range
b- color vision
d- type of habitat – lesser amounts of trees predict greater brain size
In the "animal intelligence" video, we observed a cute dog named Pippin who appeared in a TV ad. The ad was designed to elicit human empathy and to have us engage in ___________ interpretation of Pippin's state of mind.
a- a philosophical
b- an anthropomorphic
c- a canine
d- a behavioristic
Arguably the most fundamental form of learning, the use of trial and error, was first studied experimentally by ____________ who developed the famous "law of effect."
a- William James
b- Wolfgang Kohler
c- Edward Thorndike
d- Jean Piaget
We saw a video clip from Leno's Jaywalking feature. In it a young woman was asked, "How many sides are on the Pentagon?" (the Washington DC building housing military administration). She could not retrieve the answer directly from semantic memory but proceeded to use a problem solving technique based upon ___.
a- formal operations
d- unsystematic trial and error
Who was the first to write about the tool-using ability of chimpanzees to crack nuts in their natural habitat?
a- Descartes (1642)
b- Darwin (1871)
c- Goodall (1965)
d- Boesch (1995)
Young chimps in the Tai forest acquire successful nut-cracking skills no sooner than when they are ______ months old.
a- 6 b-12 c- 24 d- 48
One significant difference between human and ape brains is that _______________. This is probably related to the evolution of human language.
a- apes have a very small auditory cortex for a mammal their size
b- the human cerebral hemispheres differ more between themselves in their functions than those of apes.
c- apes have not developed functional vestibular systems in their inner ears.
d- humans have much more of their brain devoted to vision than apes
Recent gene comparisons suggest genetic differences between chimps and humans are greatest in those genes controlling ________.
One common idea concerning the evolution of primate intelligence is proposed by Byrne in his TO reading, p.171. In effect he suggests that _____ forced cognitive changes that enabled hominoids -- apes and bipedal human ancestors -- to evolve more complex cognitive abilities than monkeys.
a-the need to remember large foraging ranges
b- a need to procure and process food more efficiently
c- the rainforest habitat
d- climate changes some two million years ago
What at present appears to be the best conclusion regarding animal skills with quantities, given our readings and discussion in the “animal intelligence” video?
a- only primates have a capability of estimating small quantities, say less than 10 items.
b- many species including some birds, mammals, and non-human primates have a capability to perceptually estimate small quantities, say less than 10 items.
c- only apes and humans have demonstrated as yet the ability to count beyond 10
d- any quantitative abilities must be taught.
Recent research comparing abilities of apes of varying ages with 2.5 year old children discussed in class and in the news revealed
a- apes had relatively little ability to engage in trial and error learning
b- apes were exceptionally good at abilities involving social cognition skills
c- apes were relatively poor at engaging in social cognition skills
d- apes were exceptionally good at abilities involving quantity.
From your observations of primates, which of the following ways of socially obtaining information from others is the least likely to occur in nonhuman primates?
a- social priming
b- learning by observation
c- imitation of intention
One example of the different cognitive abilities of monkeys and apes was illustrated in the short baboon-chimp termite foraging video. One possible explanation of the advantage chimps had over baboons is that chimps but not baboons had the cognitive ability to keep the termites in mind even though the termites were out of sight. This is related to the notion, discussed in class and Gomez (2004) of ______.
c- object permanence
One common consequence of having a stroke in the human left hemisphere is aphasia as illustrated in the case presented in the Language video. What best describes the symptoms of that woman?
a- she went into a coma that may be permanent
b- she lost the ability to comprehend the grammatical relationships in sentences – how to systematically determine who did what to whom.
c- she lost her ability to articulate words
d- she lost vision in her right eye.
We know from our own experiences that humans have excellent concepts of space and the ability to locate objects, including themselves in space. Which of the following best captures the conclusions discussed in readings, the “animal intelligence” video, and class about these space and object abilities in various species?
a- many species of mammals and birds have a good sense of space and object location.
b- apes and humans surpass all other mammals in having any type of space or object concepts
c- primates surpass all other mammals in having any type of space or object concepts
d- humans are the only species with the ability to use cognitive maps.
Chimpanzees, but not bonobos or gorillas, commonly show tool construction in natural settings. Why might these other apes not show this ability?
a- they do not have sufficient manual dexterity to make tools
b- they lack Broca's area, a part of the brain essential for tool making
c- there is insufficient social priming in these apes’ culture.
d- their natural environment does not challenge their cognitive capacity enough to stimulate a need for tools
The great difficulty in determining the underlying cause of an animal's behavior was made clear in the famous case of "Clever Hans." In the video clip we saw the horse apparently answering a number of "multiple choice" questions including some on simple arithmetic. What now seems to be the best explanation of Hans' math skills?
a- Hans possessed a perceptual subitizing skill seen in parrots and apes
b- Hans could add single digit numbers reliably when presented slowly enough.
c- Hans didn’t know any arithmetic; just how to read his owner’s body language when Hans was at the correct answer.
d- it was a hoax perpetrated by Hans' owner.
Scientists have monitored brains of deaf children while they are using a human sign language, like ASL or NSL. And of course they have also monitored brain activity of speaking children. Which of the following statements best captures their findings while a child is signing or speaking?
a- the left hemisphere is predominant in both speaking and signing children
b- sign language shows no specific hemispheric activities or dominance
c- the right hemisphere is predominant in signing but not speaking children.
d- the right hemisphere is predominant in speaking but not signing children.
In a recent video clip, we saw the orangutan, Chantek, use several tools in his effort to retrieve a food tidbit from a closed box. What aspects of Piaget’s sensory-motor stage skills were illustrated here?
a- object permanence
b- trial and error learning
c- an understanding of causality
d- all of the above
What is Gomez’ (2004) conclusion about primates’ use of human language?
a- only bonobos can reach the level of human language proficiency that is enjoyed by average humans.
b- Language, in its full splendor with syntax, words, phonology, and its ability to generate an infinite number of new sentences, is seen only in humans.
c- ape auditory systems preclude their understanding even rudimentary commands
d- only apes raised in human environments acquire a good command of a human language.
What neurological or brain concept is most directly related to the ability of some primates to acquire information from observing the movements of others of their species?
a- the fibers of the corpus callosum
b- the so-called "mirror neurons"
c- the telepathic visual response
d- the otolith organs
As expressed in a recent video, Jane Goodall’s ideas about the major cognitive differences between humans and chimps are most directly related to
a- the size of chimps’ brains
b- the humans’ ability to acquire and use a referential language
c- the humans’ omnivore diet
d- the greater parental care human mothers give their offspring
Humans’ intelligence benefit greatly from what Limber calls “mind tools.” Which of the following is probably not an example of this kind of tool?
d- the prefrontal cortex
One significant difference in the social structure between baboon and chimp society is that
a- there are many males and females in the baboon society
b- in baboon society there is competition among the males for mating privileges
c- in baboon society the dominant male migrates into the group from outside
d- in baboon society the females are likely to be harassed into sexual compliance by the dominant male.
Ape and probably all mammal communication systems are sometimes described as “closed” because
a- there is little about them that remains unknown
b- only individuals within the species can use the system
c- new messages are rarely observed in these systems
d- all of the above
In the recent Language video, what did the following three segments have in common regarding the nature of normal human language -- David Premack talking about his chimp Sarah’s plastic token system, Damasio talking about the woman from Iowa with a stroke, and Bickerton talking about the pidgins spoken by runaway slaves in the Caribbean?
Why do Professors Limber and McPhail (Animal Intelligence video) suggest that "trial and error" learning is somehow more basic or fundamental than social learning or learning by imitation?
Explain with an example, the concept of "social priming." Say why it is important in the life of primates—that is, how do they benefit from this?
What was the basic purpose of the several home-raised chimp experiments? Give one significant conclusion from of those studies.
Before ascribing high "intelligence" to an organism based on observing the behavior of that organism, Professor McPhail in the "animal intelligence" video said it is necessary to know the developmental history of that behavior -- finding out how the animal acquired that behavior. Why is this an important point?
In the Social Brain video, as well as in Gomez (2004) humans are said to have special social modules or social abilities that give humans an adaptive advantage over other primates. Give two of these specific abilities and comment on what might be the advantage in having that ability.
Explain Pepperberg’s concept of communicating with other species using a human-based-code (HBC). Using an example, indicate how it works and what it might be used for.
A. Primate tool use
It is apparent that common chimps and some other non-human primates (NHP) use tools to a certain extent as evidenced in your readings and videos. Write a 1 to 2 page essay that discusses each of the following points, using examples.
a) Describe 3 distinctly different situations –different functions – where chimps have been observed using tools in nature.
b) the means of acquisition of tool use in chimps – that is, how does it appear chimps become tool users ? This is not asking where do they get tools but how do they acquire the use of the tool – that is, become tool users.
c) What are two specific adaptations that facilitate chimps tool use (e.g why chimps but not dogs.....)
d) Describe at least one important difference between chimp tool use and human tool use.
e) significance of tool use
Conclude this with a one or two concluding sentence statement on the significance -- as you see it -- of tool-use in understanding primate behavior in their natural habitats and in captivity or other human contexts.