As seen in the Language video and discussed in class, what best describes a Creole language
a- any new human language created by children from the word fragments of several languages.
b- the dialect spoken by Elvis Presley as a youth
c- a Creole is an example of a pidgin dialect spoken where there is no common language
d- a Creole is an extinct language formerly spoken in the Aleutian Islands.
Piaget described the development of human children from birth through the teen years as sequence of stages in which certain cognitive skills and concepts could be observed. The concepts of trial and error learning and object permanence, of interest in comparing non-human primates with children, first appear in the ____ stage of development.
c- concrete operational
d- formal operational
In the "animal intelligence" video, we observed a cute dog named Pippin who appeared in a TV ad. The ad was designed to elicit human empathy and to have us engage in ___________ interpretation of Pippin's state of mind.
a- a philosophical
b- an anthropomorphic
c- a canine
d- a behavioristic
The great difficulty in determining the underlying cause of an animal's behavior was made clear in the famous case of "Clever Hans." In the video clip we saw the horse apparently answering a number of "multiple choice" questions including some on simple arithmetic. What now seems to be the best explanation of Hans' math skills?
a- Hans possessed a perceptual subitizing skill seen in parrots and apes
b- Hans could add single digit numbers reliably when presented slowly enough.
c- Hans didnÕt know any arithmetic; just how to read his ownerÕs body language when Hans was at the correct answer.
d- it was a hoax perpetrated by Hans' owner.
What psychologist demonstrated that chimps and humans had very similar color vision? This psychologist also was perhaps the first to home-raise a chimp with the objective of determining the importance of environment in behavior.
a- Yerkes b- Piaget c- Kohts d- Kellogg e- Hayes
One common idea concerning the evolution of primate intelligence is proposed by Byrne in his TO reading, p.171. In effect he suggests that _____ forced cognitive changes that enabled hominoids -- apes and bipedal human ancestors -- to evolve more complex cognitive abilities than monkeys.
a-the need to remember large foraging ranges
b- a need to procure and process food more efficiently
c- the rainforest habitat
d- climate changes some two million years ago
One example of the different cognitive abilities of monkeys and apes was illustrated in the short baboon-chimp termite foraging video. One possible explanation of the advantage chimps had over baboons is that chimps but not baboons had the cognitive ability to keep the termites in mind even though the termites were out of sight. This is related to PiagetÕs idea of ________.
a- conservation of number
c- object permanence
d- logical operations
The extensive social life of primates can help make trial and error learning more efficient by offering a number of ways to __________ the number of trials to solution needed in a given problem.
Arguably the most fundamental form of learning, trial and error processes was first studied experimentally by ____________ who developed the famous "law of effect."
a- William James
b- Wolfgang Kohler
c- Edward Thorndike
d- Jean Piaget
What neurological/brain concept is most directly related to the ability of some primates to acquire information from observing the movements of others of their species?
a- the fibers of the corpus callosum
b- the so-called "mirror neurons"
c- the vestibular system of the inner ear
d- the otolith organs
Who was the first to write about the ability of chimpanzees to crack nuts in their natural habitat?
a- Descartes (1642)
b- Darwin (1871)
c- Goodall (1965)
d- Boesch (1995)
A number of psychologists mentioned in class and in video notes raised young chimpanzees in their homes. Which of the following raised Gua alongside their son Donald, who was 2.5 months older, for about 9 months until Gua was about 17 months old?
a- Keith and Catherine Hayes
b- Winthrop and Luella Kellogg
c- Nadia Kohts
d- Harry and Clara Harlow
The primate vestibular system supplies information about _________ in the overall process of sensory integration necessary for primate survival in their natural habitats.
a- body temperature
b- body movement
c- localization of sound
Young chimps in the Tai forest acquire successful nut-cracking skills no sooner than when they are ______ months old.
a- 6 b-12 c- 24 d- 48
One significant difference between human and ape brains is that _______________. This is probably related to the evolution of human language.
a- apes have a very small auditory cortex for a mammal their size
b- the human cerebral hemispheres are much more different in their functions than those of apes.
c- apes have not developed functional vestibular systems in their inner ears.
d- humans have much more of their brain devoted to vision than apes
Recent gene comparisons suggest genetic differences between chimps and humans are greatest in those genes controlling ________.
d- eye-hand coordination
We saw a video clip from Leno's Jaywalking feature. In it a young woman was asked, "How many sides are on the Pentagon?" (the Washington DC building housing military administration). She could not retrieve the answer directly from semantic memory but proceeded to use a problem solving technique based upon ___.
a- formal operations
d- unsystematic trial and error
What at present appears to be the best conclusion regarding animal skills with quantities, given our readings and discussion in the Òanimal intelligenceÓ video?
a- only primates have a capability of estimating small quantities, say less than 10 items.
b- many species including birds, mammals, and non-human primates have a capability to perceptually estimate small quantities, say less than 10 items.
c- only apes and humans have demonstrated as yet the ability to count beyond 10
d- any quantitative abilities must be taught.
In a recent video clip, we saw the orangutan, Chantek, use several tools in his effort to retrieve a food tidbit from a closed box. What aspects of PiagetÕs sensory-motor stage skills were illustrated here?
a- object permanence
b- trial and error learning
c- an understanding of causality
d- all of the above
Many mammals and birds have very good memories for where they live and forage, as we have seen. Psychologists since Tolman have described this capability as the ability to ____________.
a- use hypotheses
b- form cognitive maps
c- form learning sets
d- develop insight
In the video of the home-raised chimp, Vicki, we saw her display her ability to speak a human language, English. What conclusion best describes those abilities?
a- "The significance of Vicki's speech training lies not in the fact that she learned a few words but rather in her great difficulty in doing so, and in keeping them straight afterward."
b- "Vicki's speech training showed that chimps, as our closest relative, have enormous potential to learn a human language when put in a human environment."
c- "The significance of Vicki's speech training lies in the fact that she displayed a remarkable ability to vocally mimic - we might say "parrot" - the human voice even though she did not yet seem to grasp the complex syntax of human language."
d- "The significance of Vicki's ability to so quickly acquire spoken English shows that human language is not instinctive but is instead a result of extensive training by responsive parents."
From your observations of primates, which of the following ways of socially extracting information from others is the least likely to occur in nonhuman primates?
a- social priming
b- learning by observation
c- imitation of intention
Several converging pieces of evidence including dating of recently discovered stone cutting tools and changes in fossil teeth suggest that changes in our early bipedal ancestors' diet from leaves and fruits toward more dense calorie and protein foods with an increasing reliance on meat occurred approximately _____ years ago.
a- 10 million
b- 5 million
c- 2.5 million
The ability to remember faces is extremely important to apes and humans. It is believed that special neural circuits are involved in face recognition. We viewed a case of a young woman who, in an accident, had lost her ability to recognize people including her mother and her self – without any actual loss in basic visual acuity or color vision. This disorder is known as ____.
We have discussed how poor nutrition, directly and indirectly, can negatively affect intelligence. Which of the following is not one of these paths of influence?
b- brain damage
c- delayed physical growth
e- all of the above
We know from our own experiences that humans have excellent concepts of space and the ability to locate objects, including themselves in space. Which of the following best captures the conclusions discussed in readings, the Òanimal intelligenceÓ video, and class about these space and object abilities in various species?
a- many species of mammals and birds have a good sense of space and object location.
b- apes and humans surpass all other mammals in having any type of space or object concepts
c- primates surpass all other mammals in having any type of space or object concepts
d- humans are the only species with the ability to use cognitive maps
What method was used by a Russian psychologist to demonstrate back in the 1920s that chimps color vision was essentially the same as human color vision?
a- the psychologist observed that in natural settings chimps preferred red and orange fruits
b- the psychologist analyzed the cones of both species, showing they had the same pigments in them.
c- the psychologist taught humans and chimps to match samples of colored yarns and found both species made the same matches
d- the psychologist taught chimps words for the basic colors and asked them about various colored objects.
One method of studying the difficult topic of self-consciousness in primates has used GallupÕs method of placing a red dot on the individualÕs forehead and giving them access to a mirror. Some species—after some experience playing with mirrors -- will look in the mirror and immediately reach to take the dot off; other species will continue to treat the image in the mirror as another individual. Of humans and the great apes, only the ______ appears to have some difficulty and delay in catching on to this.
b- common chimps
The case of Pippin and that of Clever Hans illustrate a serious problem humans have in understanding the behavior of other animals. This is ____.
d- none of the above
Despite being close cousins, humans and gorillas differ in significant ways. One of these is overall strength; another is ______ size that reflects the differences in diet between these two species.
a- prefrontal cortex
d- medial temporal lobe
1. Why does Professor Limber suggest that "trial and error" learning is somehow more basic or fundamental than social learning or learning by imitation?
2. Explain with an example, the concept of "social priming." Say why it is important in the life of primates.
3. Before ascribing high "intelligence" to an organism based on observing the behavior of that organism, Professor McPhail in the "animal intelligence" video said it is necessary to know the developmental history of that behavior -- finding out how the animal acquired that behavior. Why is this an important point?
4. How does human language go beyond the typical mammalian communication systems? Be specific about how our language is fundamentally different.
5 Unlike even our closest relatives, humans have evolved the use of "mind tools." These transform the na•ve primate mind into a far different organ capable of solving quite different problems with only a minimal genetic change.
Give an example of these as discussed in notes or class and an indication of how they can change our abilities.
6. What do the home-raised chimps tell us about human language?
1. It is apparent that common chimps and some other non-human primates (NHP) use tools to a certain extent as evidenced in your readings and videos. Write a 1 to 2-page essay that discusses each of the following points, using examples.
a) Describe 3 distinctly different functions or occasions of chimp tool use
b) the means of acquisition of tool use in chimps – that is, how does it appear chimps become tool users? This is NOT just asking you where they get their tools but how they come to use them.
c) specific adaptations that facilitate chimps tool use
d) differences between non-human and human primates in tool use
e) significance of tool use
Conclude this with a one or two concluding sentence statement on the significance -- as you see it -- of tool-use in understanding primate behavior in their natural habitats and in captivity or other human contexts.