In the "animal intelligence" video, we observed a cute dog named Pippin who appeared in a TV ad. The ad was designed to elicit human empathy and to have us engage in ___________ interpretation of Pippin's state of mind.
a- a philosophical
b- an anthropomorphic
c- a canine
d- a behavioristic
Arguably the most fundamental form of learning, the use of trial and error, was first studied experimentally by ____________ who developed the famous "law of effect."
a- William James
b- Wolfgang Kohler
c- Edward Thorndike
d- Jean Piaget
We saw a video clip from Leno's Jaywalking feature. In it a young woman was asked, "How many sides are on the Pentagon?" (the Washington DC building housing military administration). She could not retrieve the answer directly from semantic memory but proceeded to use a problem solving technique based upon ___.
a- formal operations
d- unsystematic trial and error
Which of these investigators first wrote about the ability of chimpanzees to use tools in cracking nuts?
a- Descartes (1642)
b- Darwin (1871)
c- Goodall (1965)
d- Boesch (1995)
Young chimps in the Tai forest acquire successful nut-cracking skills at about _____ months of age.
a- 6 b-12 c- 24 d- 48
One common idea concerning the evolution of primate intelligence is proposed by Byrne in his TO reading, p.171. In effect he suggests that _____ forced cognitive changes that enabled hominoids -- apes and bipedal human ancestors -- to evolve more complex cognitive abilities than monkeys.
a-the need to remember large foraging ranges
b- a need to procure and process food more efficiently
c- the rainforest habitat
d- climate changes some two million years ago
What at present appears to be the best conclusion regarding animal skills with quantities, given our readings and discussion in the “animal intelligence” video?
a- only primates have a capability of estimating small quantities less than 10 items.
b- many species including some birds, mammals, and non-human primates have a capability to perceptually estimate small quantities less than 10 items.
c- only apes and humans have demonstrated as yet the ability to count beyond 10
d- any quantitative abilities must be taught.
Recent research comparing abilities of apes of varying ages with 2.5 year old children discussed in class and in the News revealed
a- apes had relatively little ability to engage in trial and error learning
b- apes were better than children involving social cognition skills
c- apes were relatively poor at engaging in social cognition skills
d- apes were exceptionally good at abilities involving quantity.
From your observations of primates, which of the following ways of socially obtaining information from others is the least likely to occur in nonhuman primates?
a- social priming
b- learning by observation
c- imitation of intention
We know from our own experiences that humans have excellent concepts of space and the ability to locate objects, including themselves in space. Which of the following best captures the conclusions discussed in readings, the “animal intelligence” video, and class about these space and object abilities in various species?
a- many species of mammals and birds have a good sense of space and object location.
b- apes and humans surpass all other mammals in having any type of space or object concepts
c- primates surpass all other mammals in having any type of space or object concepts
d- humans are the only species with the ability to use cognitive maps.
Bonobos, unlike their close cousins, the common chimpanzees, are rarely if ever observed in their natural habitat to use tools. What best explains this phenomenon?
a- bonobos do not have sufficient manual dexterity to make tools
b- bonobos lack Broca's area, a part of the brain essential for tool making
c- there is insufficient social priming in these bonobos’ culture to pass on tool use traditions.
d- bonobos natural environment may not challenge their cognitive capacity enough to stimulate a need for tools
The great difficulty in determining the underlying cause of an animal's behavior was made clear in the famous case of "Clever Hans." In the video clip we saw the horse apparently answering a number of "multiple choice" questions including some on simple arithmetic. What now seems to be the best explanation of Hans' math skills?
a- Hans possessed a perceptual subitizing skill seen in parrots and apes
b- Hans could add single digit numbers reliably when presented slowly enough.
c- Hans didn’t know any arithmetic; just how to read his owner’s body language when Hans was at the correct answer.
d- it was a hoax perpetrated by Hans' owner.
Which of the following apes seems to engage in the most non-reproductive sexual activities?
a- gorilla b- common chimp c- bonobo chimp d- gibbon
From Gomez and videos, it appears normal children acquire complex syntax at around age ___ years and pass the “false belief” test _________.
a- 3, by 5 years
b- 5, at 10 years
c- 10, at 15 years
d- 5, never!
What ape is most likely to engage in systematic hunting of monkeys?
a- gibbon b- chimpanzee c- gorilla d- orangutan e- bonobo
What neurological or brain concept is most directly related to the ability of some primates to acquire information from observing the movements of others of their species?
a- the fibers of the corpus callosum
b- the so-called "mirror neurons"
c- the telepathic visual response
d- the otolith organs
In a recent video clip, we saw the orangutan, Chantek, use several tools in his effort to retrieve a food tidbit from a closed box. What aspects of Piaget’s sensory-motor stage skills were illustrated here?
a- object permanence
b- trial and error learning
c- an understanding of causality
d- all of the above
Which of the large ape species is most likely to have a female as the dominant individual in a group or area?
Human children, even in the absence of a complete language model, can synthesize a complete language -- spoken or signed-- called _________ from fragments of language around them.
a- a creole
b- a pidgin
c- a romance language
d- an Indo-European language
The extensive social life of primates can help make trial and error learning more efficient by offering a number of ways to __________ the number of trials to solution needed in a given problem.
One difference between humans and apes in connection learning from others was illustrated in several recent video bits. What best expresses this difference in social cognition we observed, e.g. in Tomasello “teaching” Rachael .or in the Ape Genius video.
a- apes are not capable of imitation
b- children are extremely good at joint attention between informal teacher, learner, and object of instruction.
c- apes do not have object permanence and this prevents them from focusing on a given object
d- children are less likely to follow directions than apes
In the video of the home-raised chimp, Vicki, we saw her display her ability to speak a human language, English. What conclusion best describes those abilities?
a- "The significance of Vicki's speech training lies not in the fact that she learned a few words but rather in her great difficulty in doing so, and in keeping them straight afterward."
b- "Vicki's speech training showed that chimps, as our closest relative, have enormous potential to learn a human language when put in a human environment."
c- "The significance of Vicki's speech training lies in the fact that she displayed a remarkable ability to vocally mimic - we might say "parrot" - the human voice even though she did not yet seem to grasp the complex syntax of human language."
d- "The significance of Vicki's ability to so quickly acquire spoken English shows that human language is not instinctive but is instead a result of extensive training by responsive parents."
According to a recent news item, and several of our readings, human and apes differ______
a- most on object permanence
b- most on using trial and error in solving problems
c- most on their ability to use social information from others in their species
d- most on their sensorimotor stages of development
If human language resulted from the same evolutionary processes that produced the earliest modern humans according the "out of Africa" hypothesis, modern human language would have appeared for the first time approximately ________ years ago.
c- one million
d- 3.5 million
Research going back to Imo’s washing sweet potatoes (Life in the Trees) up to recent observations of chimps spearing bush-babies in tree holes suggests
a- many food activities are instinctual
b- non-human primate females catch and gather most of their group’s food supply
c- use of tools by non-human primates is often first observed in females.
d- female non-human primates rarely are observed using tools;; it is primarily a male activity.
Humans’ intelligence benefit greatly from what Limber calls “mind tools.” Which of the following is probably not an example of this kind of tool?
d- the prefrontal cortex
Kohler discovered “insight” in a few of his apes. This placed those apes where in Piaget’s stages of cognitive development devised from research on children?
a- at early formal operations
b- at the early concrete operations
c- at the end of the sensorimotor period
d- nowhere near human children at any stage
Piaget described the development of human children from birth through the teen years as sequence of stages in which certain cognitive skills and concepts could be observed. The concepts of trial and error learning, causality, and object permanence, of interest in comparing non-human primates with children, first appear in the ____ stage of development.
c- concrete operational
d- formal operational
In observing differences in following the direction of a human pointing, we have seen (Ape Genius) that _________ are surprisingly better than chimps.
The recent discovery of the FOXP2 gene promises to explain differences in _______ between humans and chimpanzees.
a- color vision
b- vocal communication
c- social-sexual behavior
d- testicle size
Why do Professors Limber and McPhail (Animal Intelligence video) suggest that "trial and error" learning is somehow more basic or fundamental than social learning or learning by imitation?
Explain with an example, the concept of "social priming." Say why it is important in the life of primates—that is, how do they benefit from this?
Before ascribing high "intelligence" to an organism based on observing the behavior of that organism, Professor McPhail in the "animal intelligence" video said it is necessary to know the developmental history of that behavior -- finding out how the animal acquired that behavior. Why is this an important point?
As we have discussed it in class, how does an organism’s behavioral repertoire play a role in its behavioral flexibility? Give an example relevant to primates.
Most mammals have a vocal communication system, often quite sophisticated. How does human language go beyond the typical mammalian communication systems? Be specific about how our language is fundamentally different.
Unlike even our closest relatives, humans have evolved the use of "mind tools." These transform the naēve primate mind into a far different organ capable of solving quite different problems with only a minimal genetic change.
Give an example of these as discussed in notes or class and an indication of how they can change our abilities.
1. It is apparent that common chimps and some other non-human primates (NHP) use tools to a certain extent as evidenced in your readings and videos. Write a 1 to 2 page essay that discusses each of the following points, using examples.
a) Describe 3 distinctly different situations –different functions – where chimps have been observed using tools in nature. (Do not give 3 examples of using tools to obtain food; that is just one function of tools.)
b) the means of acquisition of tool use in chimps – that is, how does it appear chimps become tool users ? This is not asking where do they get tools but how do they acquire the use of the tool – that is become capable tool users.
c) specific adaptations that facilitate chimps tool use (e.g why chimps but not dogs.....)
d) significant differences between non-human and human primates in tool use
e) significance of tool use for primates
Conclude this with a one or two concluding sentence statement on the significance -- as you see it -- of tool-use in understanding primate behavior in their natural habitats and in captivity or other human contexts.