Name ___________________________________________


Which of the following human innovations appears to have evolved most recently?

a- bipedalism

b- a brain several times larger than any existing primate

c- a unique form of syntactically structured language

d- slow brain maturation


One of the very common symptoms of aphasia was illustrated in the Language video seen in class.  This was _____.

a- total inability to recognize faces

b- great difficulty in uttering intelligible words

c- great difficulty in determining grammatical relationships in sentences – who did what to whom in the test sentence.

d- her loss of ability to use proper names


What is the best definition of a Creole language as seen in the Language video and discussed in class?

a- a dialect spoken in many regions of the world

b- a complete human language created by children who have not been exposed to anything but a fragmentary pidgin "language."

c- a new sign language created in central America

d- a language created to use in communicating with non-human primates


Various apes, dogs, and birds have been taught to communicate with humans to varying degrees using a "human based code."  How is this different from the way humans communicate using human language?

a- human language is acquired by children normally without explicit training

b- the formal structure of human language differs from human based codes.

c- children can create novel expressions about idea or events that they haven't heard anyone talking about previously.

d- all of the above distinguish human language from human based code use by non-humans.


The video segment on "Alex" and Irene Pepperberg demonstrates that

a-  apes can use sign language with adequate training

b- parrots can only mimic what they hear

c- mammals are not the only animals with cognitive abilities

d- Williams syndrome children lack most aspects of normal language


Children who are isolated from language due to hearing loss and without any explicit training in sign language, when brought together, have been found to___.

a- become confused, withdrawn and unable to communicate with each other.

b- use a primitive pidgin-like gesture language for all of their communication

c- synthesize (create) a full-fledged sign language out of their gesture fragments --presumably from their language "instincts" of their brains.

d- none of the above


Human sign language, like spoken language is localized in the _______ of the brain in over 90% of all users.

a- left side

b- right side

c- occipital lobe

d- hippocampus


If human language resulted from the same evolutionary processes that produced the earliest modern humans according the "out of Africa" hypothesis, modern human language would have appeared for the first time approximately ________ years ago.

a- 3 million

b- 1 million


d- 6000


Hollywood has occasionally made primate research a topic for popular films. We saw a segment from the 1951movie "Bedtime for Bonzo" starring Ronald Reagan as a psychology professor who raised a chimp in his home.  The main themes of that film illustrated in the clip we viewed was the possibility that ____

a- chimps do not belong in human society

b- chimps and humans can fall in love with Hollywood stars

c- behavior was a reflection of environment rather than fixed by heredity.

d- chimps can talk if exposed to human speech  


From the earliest days of primate research, psychologists have asked the question: "What non-human primate species makes the best model for human social-sexual relationships?" What is the best answer to that question today?

a) the monogamous gibbon

b) the sensuous bonobo

c) the polygamous gorilla

d) the promiscuous chimpanzee

e) there are no consistent patterns across human cultures for a simple human model


Sexual reproduction seems to be an awkward and costly procedure, say compared with cloning or asexual reproduction.  Several reasons have been suggested to explain this basic biological process.  What of the choices below seems to be the most plausible explanation for sexual reproduction?

a- it provides one source of variability necessary for Wallace and Darwin's theory of evolution

b- it just happened by chance first and seemed to work ok.

c- the biochemistry of life requires two different types of DNA

d- none of the above is even close to plausible


Both gorillas and orangutan males are much larger than their respective females.  This is known as ________.

a- regression to the mean

b- sexual dimorphism

c- mate choice

d- synergy


What seems to best explain the smaller testicles of gorillas and orangutans in contrast to their cousins the chimpanzees?

a- larger testicles would hinder locomotion on the ground

b- larger testicles would hinder contests with intruding males

c- due to their social-sexual structures, there is very little sperm competition with other males

d- they inherited the tendency for smaller testicles from a common ancestor not shared with chimpanzees.


Jane Goodall, in the Language video, suggested that human language may be responsible for the considerable cognitive difference between humans and chimpanzees.  Which of the following primate capabilities is least likely to be affected by chimpanzees lack of human language?

a- planning for the future

b- learning from others

c- having stories about one's past

d- using sensori-motor operations


Human children typically do not pass the "false-belief" test used to evaluate "theory of mind" concepts until age four or five.  What would application of Limber's "two year old" rule suggest about the chances of an ape passing a false-belief test?

a- it would depend on what species of ape

b- no ape is likely to even come close

c- it would take approximately two years of training to get an ape to understand the concept of "false belief."

d- since apes mature faster, they should be capable of passing a false –belief test at an even younger age on average than humans.


Despite some distinct and unique differences in social –sexual dimensions, all the apes and humans share a common pattern --  namely  __________

a- males are always larger than females

b- females always have a greater investment in offspring 

c- females are never dominant in the groups

d- only males eat meat


Dunbar's "grooming theory" on the evolution of language (TO, p,190) suggests that human language began to develop about 500,000 years ago most specifically because  ___________

a- brain size increased dramatically

b- females became more involved in society

c- group size increased towards 150, making grooming and simple vocal  interactions inadequate for maintaining social relationships

d- humans began to use their larynx for vocal interactions


What best captures the idea of "erotic imagery" as discussed in class?

a- dreams may stimulate sexual arousal

b- the cognitive abilities of humans enable us to become sexually aroused even in the absence of potential mates – unlike any of the apes.

c- an erotic image essentially defines a potential mate and may stimulate sexual arousal via any of the sensory modalities, depending on the species and individual experiences

d- a unique human cultural artifact designed to arouse viewers


What seems the most specific reason for the great variability in human mating patterns compared with ape patterns?

a- humans have speech

b- humans are slower to reach sexual maturity

c- humans have a much greater range in culture that plays a much more important role in individual lives than ape culture

d- humans tend to require more male parental investment in offspring than apes.


What is the best definition of concealed ovulation?

a- females are born with all their egg cells' DNA determined though the eggs are not matured

b- females engage in mating with many males so the father is unknown

c- cyclic (e.g. monthly) changes in fertility do not correspond to overt changes in the genital area

d-  an immature female who is unlikely to conceive even if she mates has concealed ovulation


The dominant male in a multi-male chimpanzee troop tends to have relatively more offspring than the less dominant males. This is most likely because

a) females always prefer to mate with him

b) other males are driven out the group as they mature

c) he is intolerant of attention toward females in estrous by other males and will chase a male he observes getting too close

d) he is better at detecting the moment of ovulation


What is the factor that Wrangham, Strier and others suggest perhaps was initially responsible for the differences between bonobos and chimpanzee aggressive behavior toward females?

a) male chimpanzees are larger than male bonobos

b) because of their preferred diet of more "patchy" foods, female chimpanzees tend to forage by themselves or in smaller groups than do bonobo females

c) female bonobos "advertise" ovulation much more than do female chimpanzees

d)  female bonobos have greater physical strength than female chimpanzees


In the third trimester and early postnatal primate brain, fat obtained from the mother is critical to the process of _____________ and therefore development of cognitive abilities.

a- meiosis

b- neural pruning

c- myelination of axons

d- dendritic connections


All primate social structures have one or another sex, sometimes both sexes,  migrating out of their birth group into other groups.  The primary evolutionary reason for this is thought to be that:

a- it reduces sibling rivalry

b- adolescents don't get along with their parents

c- it increases genetic variation in the species

d- none of the above


In which of the following species does the adolescent male but not the female migrate from the birth group?

a- gibbon

b- orangutan

c- gorilla

d- chimpanzee

e- none of the above


The evidence from the Arnhem zoo, discussed by deWaal, , and in the video suggests that physical size is not the only factor in a male chimp attaining "alpha" or top-ranked status in the dominance hierarchy.  Which of the other factors was considered most important in addition to size?

a- having an ability to form coalitions and get support of other high ranking members of the troop

b- be a skilled hunter

c- have a large mother

d- have an intelligent father


Echoing a point we saw in the early "Gorilla" video, Bard (1995) in her paper on parenting, suggests that what seems like "intuitive parenting" is primarily:

a - based on instinct

b- based on "hands on" experience of the young females with infants before they become mothers themselves

c- based on observational learning

d- based on the mother receiving good parenting as an infant by her mother.


What seems to be the most accurate statement about infanticide among primate species?

a- only humans are known to engage in infanticide

b- chimpanzees have never been observed to kill infants of their species

c- primates of a number of species are reported to kill young infants of females outside their group with the effect of restoring fertility in those females and mating with them.

d- bonobo males have been observed to kill infants of females who ignore their sexual advances


One function ascribed to intra-group chimpanzee aggression seen in several videos (aggression within a group) is that it --seemingly paradoxically-- promotes group cohesion. What is de Waal's explanation of this, based on his observations at the Arnhem zoo?

a- there really is no intra-group chimpanzee aggression in natural settings

b- only the dominant male provokes aggression and it increases his stature among the females, hence group cohesion

c- major fights are followed by a wave of grooming and other friendly contacts, making group bonds among males stronger than ever

d- other recognize that the aggressor is just fooling around and not intent on harm


Which of the following is NOT one of the situations in which primates might be expected to display aggression?

a- competition for mates

b- xenophobia (fear of strangers)

c- self protection

d- all of the above are situations where aggression might be expected


short answers- do any three


What did Harlow find about the importance of a primate infant's early relationship with its mother?

 What, if any, was the impact of this early relationship on the mature primate?




How might environmental factors influence aggression? 

(a) Give at least one good example.

b) Do you think it possible or desirable to eliminate aggression among primates?  Explain briefly



Human females differ from chimpanzees notably in having concealed ovulation and prominent breasts, even when not nursing.  For each of these two features, give a plausible story in a sentence or two -- about why those features are useful or adaptive to humans --if they are.

Concealed ovulation


Prominent breasts

4.  ape's acquiring human language? 2 POINTS EACH PART

One of the earliest thoughts in explaining ape's lack of language was simply that they had not had the experiences necessary to develop language.

a) How was this evaluated (1 POINT) and what was the outcome (1 POINT)?

b) Briefly suggest two possibilities that might explain the lack of language in apes.


Explanation of bonobo- chimpanzee differences

Strier (p.85) and others have suggested that the longer period of sexual swelling in bonobos is responsible in part for the lesser aggression among bonobo males – both toward the females and between males themselves compared with male chimpanzee behavior.  Briefly explain how more days of sexual swelling per monthly cycle might have this effect.



essay (1-2 pages on attached lined pages)

Sex and reproductive differences in primate behavior

We have read about and seen many examples of how male and female primates differ within a species as well as across species. Focusing upon three species: humans, bonobos, and orangutans, discuss the following topics, using examples to make your points.  (Try to follow this outline; it will help in organizing your thoughts to touch on each point as well as helping us grade your answers.)


a) sexual dimorphism in body. How do the sexes differ in general body features in these species? (Do not ignore the obvious sexual features!)



b) sexual and social relationships

How do these 3 species compare and contrast in regards to the sexual relationships and related social relationships --  e.g. aggression, dominance, mating patterns?


c) Parenting How do these 3 species compare and contrast in regards to basic reproductive functions, parental investment, and development?