Name _________________    Fill out scan sheet with name and ID (ver.2)  Pick best answer.

01

Xenophobic species like humans and common chimps are uniquely known to have

a- a desire for meat

b- female parents typically invest considerable time into their young offspring

Xc- frequently attacked and killed members of their own species who belong to another group

d- nearly helpless offspring and do not become sexually mature for eight or nine years –even longer in some cases depending on diet.

02

What seems to best explain the larger testicles of promiscuous chimps and bonobos in contrast to the smaller ones on their cousins the polygamous gorillas and orangutans?

a- smaller testicles would hinder attracting desirable females

Xb- larger testicles would enable promiscuous chimps and bonobos to produce more sperm to fertilize females who may BE fertile for a few days.

c- due to their social-sexual structures, there is no direct sperm competition with other chimp and bonobo males.  BOTH HAVE DIRECT SPERM COMPETITION-TOM & SAM MATE WITH SUE WITHIN A FEW HOURS.  THEIR SPERM SWIM TO FERTILIZE HER EGG.  THIS RARELY HAPPENS IN OTHER APES & HUMANS

d- gorillas and orangs inherited the tendency for smaller testicles from a common ancestor not shared with chimpanzees.

03

Research on human language acquisition has shown that that among the very first complex sentences uttered by 2 year old children is something like “lookit doggie jump” .  This best illustrates a unique human characteristic of using communication to _____

a-express emotion

Xb- call a listener’s attention to a specific object or action.

c- engage in social relationships via social communicational PRIMATES DO THIS

d- dominate or control a peer using vocal communication

04

Which of these species appears to have the least male parental investment (MPI) in their offspring?

a- humans

Xb- orangutans

c- baboons

d- gorillas

05

Frodo, one time leader of Goodall’s F troop lost his leadership position because, weakened by disease

a- he was defeated in combat by Freud, his older brother.

b- he ran off with a few young females to start another group.

Xc- he was driven out of his troop by a coalition of several males, tired of his brutality.

d- he was murdered in his sleep by an unknown assassin,

06

Brain damage to the human  _____ is most likely to affect the normal use of human language.

a-Corpus callosum

Xb- Left hemisphere

c- Right hemisphere

d- Gluteus maximus

07

What is the best definition of concealed ovulation?

a- females are born with all their egg cells' DNA determined though the eggs are not matured

b- females engage in mating with many males so the father is unknown

Xc- cyclic (e.g. monthly) changes in fertility do not correspond to overt sensory changes in the genital area

d-  an immature female who is unlikely to conceive even if she mates with a dominant male

08

The dominant male in a multi-male chimpanzee troop tends to have relatively more offspring than the less dominant males. This is most likely because

a- females always prefer to mate with him

b- he has a longer penis

Xc- he is intolerant of attention toward females in estrous by other males and tries to drive them away

d- he is better at detecting the moment of ovulation and thus timing of mating

09

The recent discovery of the FOXP2 gene promises to explain differences in _______ between humans and chimpanzees.

a- brain size

Xb- vocal communication

c- social-sexual behavior

d- testicle size

10

Darwin discovered and wrote about this important evolutionary process:  males have a trait, females like it and mate with them. Females then have sons with the trait and daughters with the preference. The trait and the preferences are inherited together over and over co-evolving with each other.

a- sexual dimorphism

Xb- sexual selection

c- sexual coercion

d- the theory of the inheritance of acquired traits

11

There is a lot of speculation that bonobos might be the best model for our human ancestors.  Yet one of the following bonobo characteristics seems to be very different from any recent human ancestor.

a- sexual activity is varied, and often related to tensions during feeding

b- female bonobos are sexually receptive for extended time beyond the few days each cycle they are fertile.

c- bonobos appear to walk on two legs more easily than other apes

Xd- female bonobos give birth and care for their young much on their own, picking them up at birth and moving through trees supporting their clinging newborn infant.NEVER HAPPENS WITH HUMANS

12

Wrangham and others have proposed that one factor was perhaps initially responsible for the differences between bonobo and chimpanzee aggressive behavior toward females.  This is that ___.

a- male chimpanzees are larger than male bonobos

Xb- because of their preferred diet and competition for that diet by other species, female chimpanzees tend to forage by themselves or in smaller groups than do bonobo females

c- female bonobos "advertise" ovulation much more than do female chimpanzees and the male bonobos respond to the ad!

d- female bonobos have greater physical strength than female chimpanzees

13

All primate social structures have one or another sex, sometimes both sexes, migrating out of their birth group into other groups. The primary evolutionary “motivation” for this is thought to be that:

a- it reduces sibling rivalry

b- adolescents don't get along with their parents

Xc- it increases genetic variation in the species

d- it spreads cultural diversity

14

Baboons differ most from chimp social-sexual structures in that:

a- there is no dominant baboon male that leads the group

Xb- young adult baboon males must leave their natal (birth) group

c- much of baboon social life is terrestrial

d- baboons are among the few nocturnal primates

15

Mr Kusasi, known for his brief date with Julia Roberts as well as being the dominant male orangutan in his region for many years, got his start as _____

a- firstborn son of the dominant female in that region

Xb- an orphan brought to Galdikas’ orangutan refuge when he was very young

c- one of a rare set of twin orangutan males born in captivity at Galdikas’ refuge

d- as the first son of a young orangutan who was sexually assaulted by a sub-dominant male.

16

Human children, even in the absence of a complete language model, can synthesize a complete language -- spoken or signed-- called  _________  from fragments of language around them.

Xa- a creole

b- a pidgin  FRAGMENTS OF MAYBE SEVERAL LANGUAGES

c- a romance language

d- an Indo-European language

17

What factor seems to be the most important in determining the rank of an adult female bonobo entering into a new group?

Xa- her success in ingratiating herself into her new group using her social skills and sexuality

b- the rank of her father

c- the rank of her mother

d- her ability to physically dominate the males of her group with her strength

18

Frodo – one time leader of Goodall’s F-troop—attained his position as alpha chimpanzee on the basis of

a- his mother’s rank

Xb- his size and brutality

c- his ability to persuade several other high ranking chimps to support him,

d- his support of most of the females in  the group

19

Male baboons (and some other male primates) have been seen to kill young infants of their own groups.  The explanation suggested in our recent video of this ugly behavior is that ___.

a- it serves no function and is psychopathic behavior

b- it serves to enable the group to travel faster to new feeding grounds

Xc- it serves to hasten the return to fertility of the nursing mother

d- only the very weakest infants are killed for the good of the group

20

Male bonobos have not been observed to engage in most of the more aggressive and violent activities of their very close relatives, the common chimps.  One reason for this is, not surprisingly perhaps, is their  _________.

a-  diet with very little meat

b- overindulging in penis fencing

Xc- relatively low levels of testosterone compared with common chimps

d- dominating female mates, who display most of the aggression in bonobo society

21

Which of the following characteristics appears to be the most significant difference between humans and the great apes?

a- parenting

Xb- use of pedagogy

c- sensory abilities

d- reproductive processes

22

Female apes vary in the extent of time during each menstrual cycle that they are interested in sexual activity (sexual receptivity).  Which species appears to have the longest period of sexual receptivity?

Xa- bonobos

b- common chimpanzees

c- gorillas

d- orangutans

23

One biological/behavioral feature that plays a role in attraction and mate selection across a large number of species including birds, apes, and humans is ________.   

a- genital color

b- that the dominant male doesn’t allow a fertile female to get out his sight

Xc- body symmetry

d- waist-hip ratios

24

Which of the following is not a monkey?

a- baboon

b- vervet

c- howler

Xd-bonobo

25

In chimpanzee and bonobo social structure, it is _______ that will leave their birth group and move to another group.

a- infants b- Xfemales c- males d- both sexes

26

Various apes, dogs, and birds have been taught to communicate with humans to varying degrees using a "human based code. (HBC)"  How is this different from the way humans communicate using human language?

a- human language is acquired by children normally without explicit training

b- the formal structure of human language differs from human based codes.

c- children can create novel expressions about idea or events that they haven't heard anyone talking about previously.

Xd- all of the above distinguish human language from human based code use by non-humans.

27

If human language resulted from the same evolutionary processes that produced the earliest modern humans according the "out of Africa" hypothesis, modern human language would have appeared for the first time approximately ________ years ago.

a- 6000

Xb- 150,000

c- one million

d- 3.5 million

28

Sperm competition usually refers to the competition between individual males’  efforts to fertilize a fertile female’s egg.  Species where this competition is strong like in chimp/bonobo society--  in contrast  to species like gorillas and humans-- tend to have sperm that _____

a- are larger

b- are fewer in number per ejaculation

Xc- swim faster

d- contain many more sperm with multiple copies of the Y chromosome.

29

Sexual reproduction seems to be an awkward and costly procedure, say compared with cloning or asexual reproduction.  Several reasons have been suggested to explain this basic biological process.  What of the choices below seems to be the most plausible explanation for sexual reproduction?

Xa- it provides one source of variability necessary for Wallace and Darwin's theory of evolution

b- it just happened by chance first and seemed to work ok.

c- the biochemistry of life requires two different types of DNA

d- none of the above is even close to plausible

30

What best captures the idea of "erotic imagery" as discussed in notes and class?

a- dreams may stimulate sexual arousal

b- the cognitive abilities of humans enable us to become sexually aroused even in the absence of potential mates – unlike any of the apes.

Xc- an erotic image essentially defines a potential mate and may stimulate sexual arousal via any of the sensory modalities, depending on the species and individual experiences

d- a unique human cultural artifact designed to arouse viewers


short answers (only do 3;  4 points each)

 

1. factors predicting chimp lethal aggression

What has recent research reported in the ‘primate news found out about both victims

VICTIMS ARE MALES FROM OUT GROUP INCL YOUNG

 

and aggressors?

AGGRESSORS ARE MALES FROM GROUPS WITH LARGE NUMBERS OF MALES

 

2. Harlow’s research

What is one significant fact Harlow found about the importance of a primate infant's early relationship with its mother?

POSITIVE COMFORT LED TO CURIOUS JUVENILE

NEGATIVE COMFORT LED TO FEARFUL JUVENILE

 

 

 What, if any, was the impact of this early relationship on the mature primate?

POSITIVE----SUCCESSFUL PARENTS, NORMAL COGNITION

NEGATIVE-----UNSUCCESSFUL PARENTS, NOT TOO BRIGHT

 

3. Aggression

Briefly describe two different situations where you might expect aggressive behavior from any of the large apes.  Be specific about species and situations.

1. ANY THING REASONABLE-MUST GIVE SPECIES,E.G. XENOPHOBIA, TERRITORY, PROTECT OFFSPRING, SEX HARRASSMENT, HUNTING……

 

 

 

2.

 

 

4.  theory of mind (ToM)

How does the “false belief test” serve as a measure of one’s ability to deal with social “objects?—i.e. other persons”

FB SKILLS CAN HELP PREDICT OTHERS BEHAVIOR, GIVEN RELIABLE ESTIMATES OF OTHER’S BELIEFS AND DESIRES.  MUST SAY “PREDICT” FOR FULL CREDIT.

 

5.Adult chimp-human female differences

Human females differ from chimpanzees notably in having concealed ovulation and prominent breasts when not nursing.  For each of these two features, give a plausible story in a sentence or two -- about why those features are useful or adaptive to humans --if they are.  ALL SPECULATION—ANYTHING PLAUSIBLE GETS CREDIT

 

Concealed ovulation MAY HELP F MAINTAIN CLOSE RELATIONSHIP WITH HER MATE WITH GREATER FREQUENCY OF INTERCOURSE;  MAYBE PREVENTS CHIMP-LIKE SEXUAL HARRASSMENT AND STRIFE AROUND  ESTRUS.

 

 

 

Prominent breasts even when not nursing  SIGN OF FERTILITY, MATURITY, GOOD HEALTH/FATSUPPLY

 

YOUR FAVORITE NOT HERE?—SEND EMAIL TO JL

6.Adult bonobo-chimp female differences

Strier (TO, p.85) and others have suggested that the longer period of sexual swelling in bonobos is responsible in part for the lesser aggression among bonobo males – both toward the females and between males themselves compared with male chimpanzee behavior.  Briefly explain how more days of sexual swelling per monthly cycle might have this effect.

 

LESS COMPETITION FOR SEX AS MORE SEX-DAYS AVAILABLE FOR GROUP MEMBERS.  RELATED TO CONCEALED OVULATION ABOVE?

 

7. evolve human language? 2 POINTS EACH PART

 How did bipedalism likely set the stage for the evolution of human language?  Indicate approximately the timing of the appearance of bipedalism and the appearance of modern human language.

BIPEDALISM> BIG BRAIN>CONTROLLABLE VOCAL TRACT>LANGUAGE

4MYA>2-.5MYA>150K YEARS AGO

 

8.  Mr. Kusasi

Mr Kusasi benefited significantly  from his contact with humans.  Briefly explain, with an example, one of these benefits and how it helped Kusasi.

FOOD SUPPLY, GREATER BULK, EARLY SEXUAL MATURITY.  ANTIBIOTICS AFTER BIG FIGHT.

9.   humans cause aggression?

How might human activities cause increases in aggression among apes like orangutans or chimpanzees? (that is, aggression within each species not between species).  Give one example, either species.  WE SAW TWO AT LEAST EXAMPLES.

GORILLIAS INVADING HUMAN FARMLAND

REDUCTION OF TERRITORY FORCES CONTESTS AMONG DOMINANT ORANGS (MR KUSASI)

 

essay (10 points)

A. social differences in primate behavior (3 parts: I dropped d as redundant.)

 READ THE ABOVE LINK, ESPECIALLY THAT ON  EXPLICIT TEACHING

1.  We have seen and read about many differences among apes and humans in the realm of social behavior.  This includes differences in social priming, cooperation, competition, dominance, and mating.

One of the most unique difference involves a variant of social priming—explicit teaching (pedagogy).

 

a- define pedagogy in this  context. (4 points)

 

"Pedagogy is, in its simplest form, a form of social learning that occurs via communication between two (or more) individuals, which has as its outcome the transfer of knowledge or skills."  NOTES ON SOC DIFFS (ABOVE LINK)

  TO GET 4 POINTS YOU NEED ALL OF THIS; TOO MANY FABRICATED VAGUE ANSWERS, LEAVING OUT COMMUNICATION AND/OR THE TRANSFER OF INFORMATION

 

b- describe at least two subskills necessary for teaching to occur naturally. (there are several.  Hint; what makes the “magic triangle” work?)  (2+2 points)  HERE BELOW ARE SEVERAL SUBSKILLS  ANY TWO GET 4.

 OBVIOUSLY HUMAN LANGUAGE IS FLEXIBLE AND UNIVERSAL AMONG HUMANS AS AN ALL PURPOSE COMMUNICATION PROCESS.

(EARLY COMPLEX SENTENCES, 20-25 MONTHS INCLUDE “LOOKIT SUCH AND SUCH—A KIND OF VERBAL POINTING)

 

NATURAL USE OF POINTING TO COMMON OBJECT

JOINT ATTENTION SKILLS

NATURAL DESIRE TO TEACH (“LET ME SHOW YOU..’)

NATURAL TO KNOW

 

THEORY OF MIND SKILLS MIGHT GET TWO POINTS IF IN REASONABLE DISCUSSSION OF KNOWING OTHER MINDS.

 

 

 

c-what adaptive advantage does this social difference give humans over non-human primates? (2 points)

IT ALLOWS AN ACCUMULATION OF KNOWLEDGE

IT ALLOWS A RAPID DIFFUSION OF KNOWLEDGE

 

EITHER GETS 2; MAYBE A BONUS FOR BOTH

  (SAYING INCREASES SURVIVAL GETS NOTHING IN ITSELF)

the average score was 85%.

 


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