Fig. 1a (top) Time-pressure wave plot of th first 100 milliseconds of bonobo
Fig 1b (bottom) Spectrogram of that first 100 milliseconds of call.
(A spectrogram is a plot of the amount of energy (in black) present at various
frequency bands (Hz) for that time period.)
Communication and language in primates (version 4/23/05) Here is an overview
- another overview of communication
- summary on mammalian communication
- Rene Descartes on animals and communication
- Charles Darwin on the evolution of language
from Descent of Man... (1871), ch. 3
- Notes on animal communication - bees, birds,
- Primate calls (e.g. Goodall's (1985) Chimpanzees of the Gombe, analyzes
some 40 or so calls and their meaning))
- Human language (Language video)
- Williams syndrome (Human nature
video) -- language largely unrelated to general intelligence
- Home raised chimps (Kohts, Kellogg's,
- Animals using a human communication system (HBC): Van
and Fellow, Alex
- Non human primates trained to use a "human-based-code" (HBC):
Premack's Sarah, Washoe, Koko (Language video), "Project Nim"
- Kanzi -- the bonobo NOT explicitly reward trained to use a HBC. (video
- Spontaneous sign use in humans-- creation of a
sign language in Nicaragua. Also see Goldin-Meadow's review
of Kanzi. Online with Koko?
- My (JL) general comments and brief notes and
others eyewitness testimony on comparing humans
with animals using a HBC.
- Summary on comparisons of human-based codes in humans and non-humans.
- Limber, J. (1977). Language in child and chimp? American Psychologist,
32, 280-295 (Reprinted in Sebeok, T. & Sebeok, J. (Eds.) (1980). Speaking
of Apes (pp.1197-1218). New York: Plenum Press.). (available
- overview of human language
development to age 4
- vocabulary growth in child and