figures/tables chapter 2 communication and language

Figure 2.1 Bee dances from von Frisch (1967). The arrow indicates direction to the goal indicated by the tailwagging segment; directly on outdoor horizontal surface, relative to sun when the bee is in her hive, dancing on a vertical surface. Distance, signalled by dance shape, is determined by effort or energy expenditure and "near" and "far" are relative to the foraging range of specific bee species.

Table xxxx Birdsong highlights (white crowned sparrows)

   

only males sing

 

lateralized control of song

 

virtually all can learn other songs

 

great variability in extent of learning

 

probabalistic preferences to conspecific song

 

sensitive period

 

plastic song period

 

crystallized (adult) song

 
   

Table xxxxx Twenty four examples of chickadee calls selected from 362 call types found in 3479 recordings (tokens) from more than 20 different birds.(from Hailman, Ficken, and Ficken, 1985).

Number of "syllables"

Call-type

Frequency of each call

1

B

8

2

CC

9

3

DDD

27

4

BCBC

3

5

ACCDD

1

5

ADDDD

174

6

ABABCC

1

7

AAADDDD

109

8

BCBCBCDD

1

9

CCCCCDDDD

1

10

AAAABBCCDD

1

11

DDDDDDDDDDD

2

12

AAADDDDDDDDD

2

13

BBBBBBBAAAAAA

1

14

CCDDDDDDDDDDDD

1

15

AAAAABBBBBBBBBB

1

24

BCDDDDDDDDDDDD...DDD

1

     
     
     
     

Figure xxxx

A. Figure 8.4 from Marler and Peters, 1989 showing individual song and swamp sparrow songs.

B. Figure X from Hailman showing chickadee call

Figure xxxxz Ontogeny of generic birdsong

Table xxxy Ten types of bird calls (Thorpe, 1961, p.17)

1

pleasure calls

2

distress calls

3

territorial-defense calls

4

flight calls

5

feeding calls

6

nest calls

7

flock calls

8

agressive calls

9

general alarm calls

10

specialized alarm calls such as ground predator call or flying predator call

   

Table xxxz Mammalian communication: major message types (after Peters, 1980)

MESSAGES

RAT

VERVET

HUMAN

NEONATAL

     

neonatal contact

     

infant distress

2

8

3

infant identity

1

1

2

infant affiliation

2

4

4

infant satisfaction

 

1

1

maternal assembly

     

maternal identity

1

 

2

maternal alarm

   

1

INTEGRATIVE

     

play

2

>3

large

contact

1

2

2

affiliation

3

3

1

alarm

2

6

1

familiarization

1

 

1

identity

2

>6

2

distress

2

1

1

solicitation

 

8

2

satisfaction

   

2

assembly

     

AGONISTIC

     

fighting

3

 

large

offensive threat

3

 

3

defensive threat

3

   

dominance

3

 

3

submission

5

 

2

territory advertisement

1

 

large

SEXUAL

     

male advertisement

3

 

2

female advertisement

3

 

2

courtship

4

 

large

synchronization

   

1

suppression

1

   

copulatory signal

1

 

2

TOTAL NUMBER OF TYPES

22

20

25

 

Goodall's (1985) identified around 50 chimp calls.

 

Figure xxxc A general communication system (Shannon and Weaver, 1964)