Edward Tyson's "Pygmie" (1699)

"In this Figure I have represented him with the Fingers of one Hand bended, as if kneeling upon his Knuckles, to shew the Action, when he goes on all four: For the Palms of his Hands never touch the ground, but when he walks as a Quadruped, 'tis only upon his Knuckles. The other Hand is holding a Rope, to shew his Climbing; for he will nimbly run up the Tackle of a Ship, or climb a Tree: And having this hold, he is the better supported, to shew the Sole of the left Foot, and the Heel there; on account of which Heel it may be thought a Foot: But the Great Toe being set off so far from the range of the others, and they being so large and long, it more resembles a Hand.. p. 17"

"I have thought, whether it might not be reckoned and call'd rather Quadra-manus rather than Quadrapes, i.e. four-handed, than a four-footed Animal. p.13"

As from the top ofthe Head, to the heel of the Foot in a strait Line, it measured Twenty six Inches. p.15"

"tho' our Pygmie has many Advantages above the rest of it species, yet I still think it but a sort of Ape and a meer Brute and as the Proverb has it... An Ape is an Ape, tho' finely clad. p. 82"

Whereas in truth Man is part a Brute, part an Angel; and is that Link in the Creation, that joyns them both together. p.55 "The Animal of which I have given the Anatomy, coming nearest to Mankind; seems the Nexus of the Animal and Rational ... approaching nearest to that kind of Beings which is next above us; Connect the Visible, and Invisible World.

Tyson, Edward (1699) Orang-Outang or the The anatomy of a pygmie Compared with that of a Monkey, an Ape, and a Man. London: (facsimile reprinted 1966 with an introduction by Ashley Montague.)

Edward Tyson, MD (1651-1708) was an eminent physician and anatomist who published a number of important papers on such topics as rattlesnakes, human tapeworms, and a remarkable number of comparative anatomies including that of the juvenile chimpanzee described in "The anatomy of a pygmie." The drawings are the work of William Cowper (1666-1709), also a noted anatomist. Though Tyson was aware (p.23, 65, 78) that he was describing a juvenile chimp, which of course is much similar in certain ways to human anatomy than is the adult chimpanzee, he could not know how different an adult might become. According to Montague, the skeleton of Tyson's pygmie is preserved in the Royal Museum (Natural History). Tyson, it turns out, was also a distant cousin to Charles Darwin (of course much less distant than the Pygmie!)