Put your name on booklet and in scan sheet; also 4 digit ID.__________________________________

There are 30 multiple choice—always pick the best answer.

01

In the "animal intelligence" video, we observed a cute dog named Pippin who appeared in a TV ad.  The ad was designed to elicit human empathy and to have us engage in ___________ interpretation of Pippin's state of mind.

 

a- a philosophical

Xb- an anthropomorphic

c- a canine

d- a behavioristic

02

Arguably the most fundamental form of learning, the use of trial and error, was first studied experimentally by ____________ who developed the famous "law of effect."

a- William James

b- Wolfgang Kohler

Xc- Edward Thorndike

d- Jean Piaget

03

We saw a video clip from Leno's Jaywalking feature.  In it a young woman was asked, "How many sides are on the Pentagon?" (the Washington DC building housing military administration).  She could not retrieve the answer directly from semantic memory but proceeded to use a problem solving technique based upon ___.

a- formal operations

b- deduction

c- insight

Xd- unsystematic trial and error

04

Which of these investigators first wrote about the ability of chimpanzees to use tools in cracking nuts?

a- Descartes (1642)

Xb- Darwin (1871)

c- Goodall (1965)

d- Boesch (1995)


05

Which of the following of our sensory systems is known as the “sixth sense” because of its low intrusion into our consciousness?

a- taste

Xb- proprioception

c-smell

d-hearing

e-touch

 

06

One common idea concerning the evolution of primate intelligence is proposed by Byrne in his TO reading, p.171.  In effect he suggests that _____ forced cognitive changes that enabled hominoids -- apes and bipedal human ancestors -- to evolve more complex cognitive abilities than monkeys.

 

a-the need to remember large foraging ranges

Xb- a need to procure and process food more efficiently

c- the rainforest habitat

d- climate changes some two million years ago

07

What at present appears to be the best conclusion regarding animal skills with quantities, given our readings and discussion in the “animal intelligence” video?

a- only primates have a capability of estimating small quantities less than 10 items.

Xb- many species including some birds, mammals, and non-human primates have a capability to perceptually estimate small quantities less than 10 items.

c- only apes and humans have demonstrated as yet the ability to count beyond 10

d- any quantitative abilities must be taught.

08

Primate species differ in the ways that the group leader is determined.  In baboons the leader _____

a- is a son of the dominant female who protects him until he is mature enough to lead the troop.

b- is the daughter of the dominant female who protects her until she is mature enough to lead the troop

Xc- is an outsider who takes over the troop by physically challenging and defeating the current leader.

d- is a strong, aggressive male who is born in the troop and organizes support from other males  in order to be leader.

 

09

From your observations of primates, which of the following ways of socially obtaining information from others is the least likely to occur in nonhuman primates?

a- social priming

b- learning by observation

c- imitation of intention

Xd- teaching

10

We know from our own experiences that humans have excellent concepts of space and the ability to locate objects, including themselves in space.  Which of the following best captures the conclusions discussed in readings, the “animal intelligence” video, and class about these space and object abilities in various species?

Xa- many species of mammals and birds have a good sense of space and object location.

b- apes and humans surpass all other mammals in having any type of space or object concepts

c- primates surpass all other mammals in having any type of space or object concepts

d- humans are the only species with the ability to use cognitive maps.

11

Bonobos, unlike their close cousins, the common chimpanzees, are rarely if ever observed in their natural habitat to use tools.  What best explains this phenomenon?

a- bonobos do not have sufficient manual dexterity to make tools

b- bonobos lack Broca's area, a part of the brain essential for tool making

c- there is insufficient social priming in these bonobos’ culture to pass on tool use traditions.

Xd- bonobos natural environment may not challenge their cognitive capacity enough to stimulate a need for tools

12

The great difficulty in determining the underlying cause of an animal's behavior was made clear in the famous case of "Clever Hans."  In the video clip we saw the horse apparently answering a number of "multiple choice" questions including some on simple arithmetic.  What now seems to be the best explanation of Hans' math skills?

a- Hans possessed a perceptual subitizing skill seen in parrots and apes

b- Hans could add single digit numbers reliably when presented slowly enough.

Xc- Hans didn’t know any arithmetic; just how to read his owner’s body language when Hans was at the correct answer.

d- it was a hoax perpetrated by Hans' owner.

13

Which of the following apes seems to engage in the most non-reproductive sexual activities?

a- gorilla    b-  common chimp   Xc- bonobo chimp  d- gibbon

 

14

Several psychologists between 1900 and 2000 have raised young chimps in their homes.  The first one of these, _____, also was the first to demonstrate, in a yarn matching task, that chimps and humans had very similar color vision.

Xa- Nadia Kohts

b- Winthrop Kellogg

c- Keith Hayes

d- Ronald Reagan

 

15

Good cognitive or mental maps are a functional capacity found in very many species including birds, elephants, and primates. What region of the brain is most associated with this capability?

Xa- hippocampus

b- left hemisphere

c- cerebellum

d- Broca’s area

16

What neurological or brain concept is most directly related to the ability of some primates including humans to acquire information from observing the movements of others of their species?

a-  the fibers of the corpus callosum

Xb-  the so-called "mirror neurons"

c- the telepathic visual response

d- the otolith organs

17

One example of the different cognitive abilities of monkeys and apes was illustrated in the short baboon-chimp termite foraging video.  One plausible explanation of the advantage chimps had over baboons is that chimps but not baboons had the cognitive ability to keep the termites in mind even though the termites were out of sight. This is related to the notion, discussed in class and Gomez (2004) of ______.

a- prosopagnosia

b- insight

Xc- object permanence

d- aphasia

 

18

Meat obtained from hunting plays a significant role in chimpanzee society (e.g. Stanford reading in TO,  video).  Which of the following best describes this role?

a- males with  meat may “trade” it for sex with females

b- males possessing meat may share it to gain support from other males

c- meat supplies some essential nutrients for brain growth

Xd- meat serves all of the above functions

 

19

One significant difference between human and ape brains is that _______________.  This is probably related to the evolution of human language.

a- apes have a very small auditory cortex for a mammal their size

Xb- the human cerebral hemispheres differ more between themselves in their functions than those of apes.

c- apes have not developed functional vestibular systems in their inner ears.

d- humans have much more of their brain devoted to vision than apes

 

20

The extensive social life of primates can help make trial and error learning more efficient by offering a number of ways to __________ the number of trials to solution needed in a given problem.

a- explain

Xb- reduce

c- complicate

d- multiply

21

Human language, for the large majority of humans, is generally localized in what region of the brain?

a- cerebellum

b- right hemisphere

Xc- left hemisphere

d- prefrontal cortex

22

In the video of the home-raised chimp, Vicki, we saw her display her ability to speak a human language, English.  What conclusion best describes those abilities?

 

Xa- "The significance of Vicki's speech training lies not in the fact that she learned a few words but rather in her great difficulty in doing so, and in keeping them straight afterward."

b- "Vicki's speech training showed that chimps, as our closest relative, have enormous potential to learn a human language when put in a human environment."

c- "The significance of Vicki's speech training lies in the fact that she displayed a remarkable ability to vocally mimic - we might say "parrot" - the human voice even though she did not yet seem to grasp the complex syntax of human language."

d- "The significance of Vicki's ability to so quickly acquire spoken English shows that human language is not instinctive but is instead a result of extensive training by responsive parents."

23

A number of investigators have suggested that primate intelligence is somehow related to group social structure.  What of the following discussed in your readings by Dunbar (Fig.7.1) and in class, best supports this?

a- primates living in smaller groups primarily eat foliage.

b- primates living in larger groups tend to have a smaller hippocampus.

Xc- primates living in larger groups tend to have relatively larger brains

d- prosopagnosia is only found in less social primate species

24

If human language resulted from the same evolutionary processes that produced the earliest modern humans according the "out of Africa" hypothesis, modern human language would have appeared for the first time approximately ________ years ago.

a- 6000

Xb- 150,000

c- one million

d- 3.5 million

25

Research going back to Imo’s washing sweet potatoes (Life in the Trees), chimps cracking nuts in trees, up to recent observations of chimps spearing bush-babies in tree holes suggests

a- many food activities are instinctual

b- non-human primate females catch and gather most of their group’s food supply

Xc- use of tools by non-human primates is often first observed in females.

d- female non-human primates rarely are observed using tools;; it is primarily a male activity.

26

Humans’ intelligence benefits greatly from what Limber calls “mind tools.”  Which of the following is probably not an example of this kind of tool?

a- words

b- numbers

c- maps

Xd- the prefrontal cortex

27

Kohler discovered “insight” in a few of his apes.  This placed those apes where in  Piaget’s stages of cognitive development devised from research on children?

a-         at early formal operations

b-        at the early concrete operations

c-         Xat the end of the sensorimotor period

d-        nowhere near human children at any stage

 

28

Piaget described the development of human children from birth through the teen years as sequence of stages in which certain cognitive skills and concepts could be observed.  The concepts of trial and error learning, causality, and object permanence, of interest in comparing non-human primates with children, first appear in the ____ stage of development.

Xa- sensory-motor

b- symbolic

c- concrete operational

d- formal operational

 

29

Which of the following of our sensory systems is known as the “sixth sense” because of its low intrusion into our consciousness?

a- taste

Xb- proprioception

c-smell

d-hearing

e-touch

 

30

Primate ears serve several functions.  Primate and other vertebrate hearing evolved out the organs originally serving to provide _______________.

a- sensory transduction

Xb- balance

c- color vision

d- the sensation of pain

 

Short answers  Do any three of  seven; we will only grade the first three. Try to review your answers.  Ask yourself did I write what I intended?  Did I write what the question called for?  Did I give examples?

1  trial and error

Why do Professors Limber and McPhail (Animal Intelligence video) suggest that "trial and error" learning is somehow more basic or fundamental than social learning or learning by imitation?

 

BEFORE ANYONE CAN LEARN FROM SOMEONE ELSE, THAT SOMEONE ELSE HAS TO LEARN IT – AND HOW CAN THEY DO IT?  EITHER TRIAL AND ERROR OR FROM SOMEONE ELSE.... AND SO ON.

AT THE BEGINNING ONLY TRIAL AND ERROR IS AVAILABLE. (4 POINTS FOR THE GENERAL IDEA.)

 

(INSTINCTS OF COURSE, ARE NOT LEARNED.  IMPRINTING AND LEARNING LOCATIONS VIA COGNITIVE MAPS SEEM EXCEPTIONS.  SOCIAL PRIMING IS NOT NECESSARILY MORE COMPLEX OR REQUIRE MORE INTELLIGENCE THAN TRIAL AND ERROR--  MIRROR NEURONS FOR EXAMPLE PRIME MOTIONS WITHOUT ANY INTELLGENCE.)

 

SOME WROTE THAT T&E WAS SOMEHOW SIMPLER OR LESS COMPLEX THAN SOCIAL LEARNING.  NEITHER SEEMS REASONABLE; CONSIDER ‘MIRROR NEURONS”—THEY REQUIRE NO THOUGHT AT ALL.)

 

 

 

2 social priming

Explain with an example, the concept of "social priming."  Say why it is important in the life of primates—that is, how do they benefit from this?

SOCIAL PRIMING IS A GENERAL TERM FOR VARIOUS WAYS OF LEARNING FROM OTHERS. NOT EVERYONE NEEDS TO GO THROUGH TRIAL & ERROR – AT LEAST TO THE EXTENT OF THE FIRST INDIVIDUAL TO LEARN WHATEVER. 3 POINTS FOR THE IDEA, ONE POINT FOR AN EXAMPLE, E.G. NUT CRACKING OR ANY BEHAVIOR THAT SEEMS SOCIAL PRIMING WOULD BE INVOLVED IN.



HERE IS MORE ELABORATION ON THESE THEMES:

THE BASIC IDEA IS THAT THE BEHAVIOR OF A CONSPECIFIC  (or similar species perhaps) "PRIMES" -- INCREASES THE PROBABILITY OF -- SOME ELEMENTS OF SIMILAR BEHAVIOR IN THE OBSERVER.

THIS PRIMING SERVES TO ENHANCE THE LIKLIHOOD OF USEFUL RESPONSES AND LESSEN THAT OF IRRELEVANT ONES. (as in trial and error learning)

DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF A COMPLEX BEHAVIOR CAN BE PRIMED – AN OBJECT (E.G. NUT), A RESPONSE (E.G. HITTING NUT WITH ROCK), A GOAL (E.G. GETTING THE NUTMEAT FROM A NUT).

FOR EXAMPLE, A YOUNG CHIMP WATCHING ITS MOTHER COLLECT OR PROCESS FOOD, MAY HAVE SOME OF THE BEHAVIORAL COMPONENTS OF THAT ACTIVITY PRIMED IN ITS OWN BEHAVIOR, ENABLING A MORE RAPID EMULATION OF THOSE BEHAVIORS. FOR EXAMPLE IN USING A STICK TO CATCH TERMITES, THE MOTHER PRIMES THE HOLDING OF STICKS, THE DESIRABILITY OF TERMITES, AND THE SPECIFIC MOVEMENTS TO OBTAIN THEM.

IN MOST CASES SOME TRIAL AND ERROR LEARNING IS NECESSARY TO REFINE OR MODIFY THE MOVEMENTS TO SUIT THE LEARNERS SPECIFIC NEEDS AND CHARACTERISTICS.


 

SO-CALLED “MIRROR NEURONS” MIGHT PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN SOCIAL PRIMING.

 

 

 

 

 

3.  detecting intelligence

Before ascribing a high degree of "intelligence" to an organism based on observing the behavior of that organism, Professor McPhail in the "animal intelligence" video said it is necessary to know the developmental history of that behavior -- finding out how the animal acquired that behavior.  Why is this an important point?

AS WE USE THE TERM, INTELLIGENCE REFERS TO THE ABILITY OF INDIVIDUALS TO ADAPT TO NEW CIRCUMSTANCES AND ENHANCING THEIR FITNESS.

 

JUST OBSERVING AN ORGANISM DOING SOME USEFUL BEHAVIOR DOES NOT IN ITSELF TELL US WHETHER THAT WAS LEARNED (HENCE INTELLIGENT TO SOME DEGREE) OR SIMPLY INHERITED (NOT REFLECTIVE OF THE INDIVIDUAL’S INTELLIGENCE AT ALL)

(WE DISCUSSED DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HUMANS AND BIRDS FLYING; HUMANS AND CHIMPS USING HUMAN LANGUAGE.)

4 POINTS FOR THE WHOLE IDEA; NO EXAMPLE NECESSARY BUT IT MIGHT HELP MAKE THE POINT.

 

 

 

4 home raised chimp studies

What was the basic purpose of the several home-raised chimp experiments discussed in class , notes, and videos?  Give one significant conclusion from those studies.

 

THE MAIN GOAL WAS TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH APES ‘ BEHAVIOR WAS DUE TO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS (OR HEREDITY).

ONE COMMON CONCLUSION WAS THAT APES DIDN’T LEARN HUMAN SPEECH AT ALL.  THERE WAS SOME COMPREHSION BUT NO PRODUCTION. 

 

OTHER CONCLUSIONS ARE POSSIBLE—ANYTHING DEFENDABLE WILL DO, E.G. LEARNING MANY HUMAN CHARACTERISTICS BUT NOT LANGUAGE.

 

 

5  Murder in the Troop  4 POINTS

In the “Murder..” video we saw the new “king” kill one of the infants still being nursed by its mother.  Such infanticide has been observed in other primate species as well.  What seems to be a plausible biological explanation for this?

.

THE COMMON INTERPRETATION IS THAT KILLING A NURSING INFANT WILL RETURN THE FEMALE TO FERTILITY QUICKLY AND THE “KING” WILL IMPREGNATE HER, INCREASING HIS “FITNESS”— INCREASING HIS NUMBER OF OFFSPRING.  (NO INTENT OR GOAL NEED BE ATTRIBUTED TO THE “KING”—WE DON’T KNOW THE MECHANISM AS FAR AS I KNOW.)

 

6  mind tools

Unlike even our closest relatives, humans have evolved the use of "mind tools."  These transform the naēve primate mind into a far different organ capable of solving quite different problems with only a minimal –if any-- genetic change.

 

Give an example of these as discussed in notes or class and an indication of how they can change our abilities.

 

 SEE TOPIC NOTES ON THIS.  FOUR POINTS FOR ANY REASONABLE EXAMPLE THAT INVOLVES A MIND “ARTIFACT”—A WORD, NUMBERS, LOGIC, MATHEMATICS, MEASURING SYSTEMS ETC THAT HAVE BEEN MADE OR INVENTED BY SOMEONE OR GROUP.

SOME MENTION MUST BE MADE OF HOW HAVING ACCESSS TO THESE CHANGES ABILITIES, E.G. WRITING ENABLES KEEPING RECORDS, BETTER PLANNING ETC.  ANYTHING REASONABLE HERE.

 

2 POINTS FOR EXAMPLE, 2 POINTS FOR COMMENT ON HOW ABILITIES CHANGE WITH USE OF THE “TOOL.”  FOR EXAMPLE, WRITING EXTENDS OUR MEMORY, NUMBERS ENABLE COUNTING ACCURATELY ABOVE TEN.  LANGUAGE ENABLES WRITING.

 

IT IS NOT CORRECT TO SAY THAT PARTS OF BRAIN OR A BRAIN FUNCTION IS A MIND TOOL.  A COGNITIVE MAP IS NOT AN ARTIFACT UNLESS IT IS REPRODUCED ON PAPER OR IN THE SAND, ETC.

 

 

 

 

 

7  primates in the news item  (SEE ITEM)-

Recent researchers into chimp-human genetic differences have reported a common genetic cause of the larger human large brain, and loss of penis “spines” in humans but not chimps.  In a sentence or two, describe the nature of this genetic change.

 

“A NEW STUDY SUGGESTS THAT THIS FEATURE DISAPPEARED DUE TO A CHUNK OF DNA THAT WENT MISSING AFTER OUR EVOLUTIONARY DIVERGENCE FROM CHIMPS. THE RESEARCHERS HAVE IDENTIFIED ANOTHER DNA DELETION THAT MAY HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO HUMANS' BIGGER BRAINS.”  JUST SAY DELETION OF A CHUNK OF DNA… 4 PTS

tool use essay (1-2 pages, any graphics or lists don’t count as pages.)

Primate Tool use:PLEASE CHECK THAT YOU ADDRESSED ALL FIVE PARTS IN YOUR ANSWER.

 

1.    It is apparent that common chimps and some other non-human primates (NHP) use tools to a certain extent as evidenced in your readings and videos. Write a 1 to 2 page essay that discusses each of the following 5 points (a to e), using examples.

GIVE 3 POINTS FOR ANY THREE OF THE FIRST FOUR.  #5 MIGHT GET A HALF POINT.

1.OBTAINING FOOD (WE HAVE SEEN CHIMPS GET TERMITES, CRACK NUTS,.(3 FOOD USES GETS 1 POINT)


2.CHIMP PERSONAL HYGIENE GROOMING -- (E.G.WIPING OFF BLOOD AND OTHER FLUIDS)


3. CHIMP USE OF STICKS, BRANCHES, VARIOUS OBJECTS IN AGGRESSIVE THREATS AND DISPLAYS, AND INTIMIDATION EFFORTS, EVEN DEFENSE.  ONE MIGHT USE DISPLAYS AND DEFENSE AS TWO DIFFERENT USES.

4. CHIMPS MAY USE STICKS AS PROBES EXTENDING THEIR REACH


(5. IN HUMAN CONTEXTS, VARIOUS HUMAN ARTIFACTS MAY BE USED BY CHIMPS—THIS IS NOT REALLY WHAT WAS ASKED FOR “in nature”.)

 

YOU WILL GET NO CREDIT FOR SAYING APES USE TREES AS TOOLS WHEN THEY CLIMB THEM UNLESS MAYBE IF THEY CUT DOWN A LIMB AND MOVED IT TO USE AS A LADDER!  SOME PROCESSING OR CHANGING CONTEXT IS REQUIRED FOR A TOOL DESIGNATION. AND HANDS ARE NOT TOOLS IN THEMSELVES.

 

 

 

 

a)   Describe 3 distinctly different situations –different functions – where chimps have been observed using tools in  nature.

 

b)   Describe the means of acquisition of tool use in chimps – that is, how does it appear chimps become tool users ? This is not asking where do they get tools but how do they acquire the use of the tool – that is become capable tool users.

GIVE 3 POINTS FOR ANY THREE OF THE FIRST FOUR.  #5 MIGHT GET A HALF POINT.  SOME DEDUCTIONS FOR MISTAKES.

1.OBTAINING FOOD (WE HAVE SEEN CHIMPS GET TERMITES, CRACK NUTS,.(.3 FOOD USES GETS 1 POINT)


2.CHIMP PERSONAL HYGIENE GROOMING -- (E.G.WIPING OFF BLOOD AND OTHER FLUIDS)


3. CHIMP USE OF STICKS, BRANCHES, VARIOUS OBJECTS IN AGGRESSIVE THREATS AND DISPLAYS, AND INTIMIDATION EFFORTS, EVEN DEFENSE.  ONE MIGHT USE DISPLAYS AND DEFENSE AS TWO DIFFERENT USES.

4. CHIMPS MAY USE STICKS AS PROBES EXTENDING THEIR REACH


(5. IN HUMAN CONTEXTS, VARIOUS HUMAN ARTIFACTS MAY BE USED BY CHIMPS—THIS IS NOT REALLY WHAT WAS ASKED FOR.)

 

YOU WILL GET NO CREDIT FOR SAYING APES USE TREES AS TOOLS WHEN THEY CLIMB THEM UNLESS MAYBE IF THEY CUT DOWN A LIMB AND MOVED IT TO USE AS A LADDER!  SOME PROCESSING OR CHANGING CONTEXT IS REQUIRED FOR A TOOL DESIGNATION. AND HANDS ARE NOT TOOLS IN THEMSELVES.

 

 

 

c)    describe specific adaptations that facilitate chimps tool use  (e.g why chimps but not dogs, etc. do such and such)

2 POINTS – ONE FOR GRASPING HAND, ANOTHER FOR MENTION OF LARGE PFC, EYE-BRAIN CONNECTION WITH HAND, OR SOMETHING RELATING TO SOCIAL ADAPTATIONS FOR SOCIAL PRIMING INCLUDING A LONG PERIOD SPENT WITH THEIR MOM.

 (THERE MIGHT BE SOME OTHER VARIATIONS HERE.)


ENVIRONMENTS ARE NOT ADAPTATIONS-

 

(ENVIRONMENTS MAY SELECT FOR CHANGES THAT WE SAY ARE ADAPTATIONS TO THAT ENVIRONMENT.)

 

d)   describe at least two differences between non-human and human primates in tool use

 

                        2 POINTS FOR ANYTHING REASONABLE—USE OF "MIND TOOLS" BY HUMANS  (LANGUAGE, NUMBERS, LOGIC, BLUEPRINTS, SCIENTIFIC THINKING, ETC.), SYSTEMATIC MANUFACTURE AND CREATION OF TOOLS, ACCUMULATIVE IMPROVEMENT OF TOOLS, USE OF EXPLICIT TEACHING BY HUMANS. 

 


ONLY ONE IS NEEDED.

(I DO NOT THINK CHIMPS EVER USE MIND TOOLS – ONE MIGHT SHOW THAT CHIMPS TAUGHT SOME HUMAN BASED CODES COULD DO THINGS USING THOSE CODES OTHER CHIMPS COULD NOT DO. )

ONE MIGHT ARGUE THAT TOOLS PLAY VERY LITTLE NECESSARY ROLE IN CHIMP LIFE BUT ARE CRITICAL FOR HUMANS AS WE KNOW US.

 

 

e)    significance of tool use

(1)  Conclude this with a one or two concluding sentence statement on the significance -- as you see it -- of tool-use in understanding primate behavior in their natural habitats and in captivity or other human contexts.

1 POINT FOR ANYTHING PLAUSIBLE; YOU MUST ADDRESS THE QUESTION TO GET THE CREDIT. 

SOME ANSWERS MIGHT BE:

TOOLS ENABLE RAPID ADAPTATION TO NEW ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS (MY FAVORITE).  THUS THE SAME BIOLOGY CAN APPLY TO DIFFERENT PROBLEMS—BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATION WITHOUT GENETIC CHANGE.

 

  PRIMATE HANDS CAN HOLD A VARIETY OF CREATIONS.  THERE'S NO WAIT FOR GENETIC ADAPTATION. (I GAVE SOME CREDIT TO ANSWERS THAT FOCUSED ON THE SIGNIFICANCE TO SCIENTISTS RATHER THAN TO THE CHIMPS--NOT WHAT I ORGINALLY HAD IN MIND.) 


 

OR ONE MIGHT JUST OBSERVE THAT TOOLS CAN INCREASE FOOD SUPPLY, WARD OFF PREDATORS, ETC - ALL ACTIVITIES THAT ENHANCE FITNESS.