PSYC 512 01 12917 Psychology of Primates 4.0
T R 0940-1100 AM CON 101 J Limber
These are my own notes and record of what we covered (discussed/viewed) in class. They also may include other relevant material I didn't mention but should have if time (or memory) allowed. They are not necessarily complete but should be reviewed before exams as I might add or revise at any time. (I left some items in from last semester.) I usually try to log my notes each day and will modify any contents that need it. New assignments will be found here as well.
See course description and other features of the webpage and course itself.
(Read about Tyson's Pygmie -- the "standing" chimp on my webpage. Our human fascination with animals probably goes back into prehistory but modern science of primates, might start with Tyson. Darwin and Wallace put together a theory of evolution that has proven largely true -- for primates as well as beetles)
Timeline of primate evolution and more
The "Adaptation" video intro compresses earth's history into a few minutes-- note the extinction of dinosaurs and portrayal of separation of apes and humans by the east African rift.
See timeline of evolution and overview notes. While all of us are aware that species come and go, many do not realize that the earth itself undergoes changes (in continents, geology and temperature) at a less noticeable rate but those changes have had a dramatic effect on shaping life on earth. Note the discussion of Madascar in Life in the Trees, now an island, populated by lemurs found nowhere else.
Show "Life in the trees" Everyone should know the distinguishing characteristics of primates, something about all the apes and their similarities with various species of Homo xxxx including us humans. We should also know about a few non-ape species that have served as "animal models" for human behavior. These would include old world (OW) rhesus monkeys and other macaques (some of which are misleadly known as Barbary Apes even though they are monkeys), baboons (also monkeys), the new world (NW) capuchin and tamarin monkeys, and some prosimians such as lemurs. Others may be added to this list. See video for similarities and differences of OW and NW monkeys. One of these differences, a prehensile tail, raises some interesting questions-- what other differences are required in order to evolve a functional prehensile tail? Think about building a robot or puppet monkey with a grasping tail; what else would have to be changed?
The most signficant correction to the "Life in trees" video is the statement that humans and chimps shared a common ancestor some 15 million years ago (mya). Since that video was made, we have learned that there is only about 5 to 7 million years difference between chimps -- our closest relative -- and humans. Read a recent entry in "what's new.."
New discoveries continue to be made - new species found, more about relationships among existing ones revealed -- either from new fossil or DNA findings. See recent items in "what's new..."
How do we know this? See the next video, Children of Eve.
But first see the slides in "primate family" topic notes. Also see the recent discovery in the "News" regarding genetic differences determining primate forelimbs. (Compare mammal forelimbs with primates' forelimbs - of course primates including us humans are also mammals...)
Sketch taken from board last class of geographical distribution of current non-human primates. Obviously this is incomplete regarding prosimian and monkey species. There are about 222 primate species.
The EHE readings are on Blackboard; the Limber "...Fascination..." reading is online.
Show/finish "Children of Eve" video -- at the time of production this was quite revolutionary in its claims. These biochemical, DNA analyses are even more sophisticated today and can reveal historical relatedness not visible in fossil comparisions. We could view a more recent version of this but the mild controversy discussed about the methods and conclusions on date of a common human/chimp ancestor illustrates the process of science. Sarich's conclusions could have been wrong -- even today if someone finds a non-hoaxed big skull dating to 3 or 4 mya, all bets are off.. Recent work (see video notes and "news" ) confirms most of these conclusions and debate has focused on precise timing of the "out of Africa" migration of modern humans. Estimates range between 150,000 and 50,000. For our purposes, we can say that about 100,000 years ago modern human bodies roamed into the middle East, Asia and Europe. The oldest fossil representing these modern humans is about 100,000 years old , found in Iraq.
Darwin's 200th birthday is this Feb. 12; a big celebration is planned.
What did Darwin think, circa 1830-1871?) He had no hominid fossils, no DNA -- heredity was a complete mystery though Darwin created his own bogus theory of "pangenesis." This was a somewhat clever implementation of Lamarck's(1808) theory of the inheritance of acquired traits. This was widely believed until the late 1800s and even into the early 1900s but proven false by Weissman's (1885) discovery that "germ cells" are not modified by parental learning. Female ova (eggs) hereditary material, for example is established before prenatally. (More on this later.)
Not until the 20th century did any real understanding of inheritance surface. (The word "gene" was created about 1909; the term "genetic" as used by Piaget (1896-1980) meant only "growth.")
Darwin's sketches of origins and relatedness of the apes to humans were remarkably accurate based on very little modern evidence. Here's what Darwin said:
" On the Birthplace and Antiquity of Man.- We are naturally led to enquire, where was the birthplace of man at that stage of descent when our progenitors diverged from the catarhine* stock? The fact that they belonged to the stock clearly shews that they inhabited the Old World; but not Australia nor any oceanic island, as we may infer from the laws of geographical distribution. In each great region of the world the living mammals are closely related to the extinct species of the same region. It is therefore probable that Africa was formerly inhabited by extinct apes closely allied to the gorilla and chimpanzee; and as these two species are now man's nearest allies, it is somewhat more probable that our early progenitors lived on the African continent than elsewhere. (Ch.6, Descent of Man....)"
*What is "catarhine?" I looked it up.
Etymology: New Latin Catarrhina, from Greek katarrhina, neuter plural of katarrhin hook-nosed, from kata- + rhin-, rhis nose
" of, relating to, or being any of a division (Catarrhina) of primates comprising the Old World monkeys, higher apes, and hominids that have the nostrils close together and directed downward, 32 teeth, and the tail when present never prehensile.
Charles Darwin, perhaps like his grandfather Erasmus, assumed all life stemmed from a single cell ("filament"). This is sometimes known as the Doctrine of Common Descent. Recent thinking suggests at least at the earliest stages of life, genes may have transferred "laterally" making the most accurate model of evolution a kind of network rather than a tree or bush.
Both PBS and the BBC have websites on human evolution that are worthwhile.
Begin Orangutan video on the most distant large ape. Read about orangutans in the overview. Note that while researchers focus on chimps as tool-users, orangs certainly have the eye-hand coordination and dexterity to use many human tools. Their apparent lack (but see short video clip next week) of natural tool use is probably a matter of their environment, not their capability in using tools.
I have kept up a "timetable" of primate events, beginning at the beginning!
Again see the slides in "primate family" topic notes. Also see the recent discovery in the "News" regarding genetic differences determining primate forelimbs. (Compare mammal forelimbs with primates' forelimbs - of course primates including us humans are also mammals...)
Finish Galdikas orangutan video; read the video notes. There's a new orang book recently published, supposedly excellent.
video: a few more Asian video bits- loris, simiang (gibbon cousin), and recent orang clips--a bit of Julia's date with Mr Kusasi and some newly filmed orang behaviors. These include :
start Gorilla; see notes. Take a field trip to the Franklin zoo in Boston where there is an excellent gorilla exhibit, starring the notorious Little Joe and a number of adult females, juvenile, and young gorillas.
Comment on Gomez book. (Also in topic notes under 'text notes.") Review terms in Gomez.
A brief discussion of primate cognition --
Be aware of "anthropomorphism"-- the attribution of human traits and characteristics to non-human entities such as plants, computers, coke machines, and animals. Some might say "unwarranted" attribution... But if taken as a source of ideas and hypotheses about the causes of those entities behaviors, controlled anthropomorphism may be fruitful. It always pays to be cautious and seek additional evidence. Hebb (1946-7) for example argued certain ape behaviors might be better predicted by conceptualizing apes as humans. More on this later but many of these video narrations make gross assumptions about the video scene that go beyond what we see.
(Hebb, D. O. (1947) Spontaneous Neurosis in Chimpanzees: Theoretical Relations with Clinical and Experimental Phenomena. Psychosomatic Medicine. 9, 3-19. With commentary by O.H. Mowrer himself.
Hebb, D. O. (1946). Emotion in man and animal: An analysis of the intuitive processes of recognition. Psychological Review, 53, 88-106.. | ISI |)
a- flexibiliity of behavior. Primates are particular good at changing their behavior in response to new problems. this a function of several morphological developments, notably very flexible grasping forelimbs and relatively large increase in neocortex. Long life and a long juvenile period enables much learning from others -- especially mom. (Contrast flexibility with reflexes.)
b- the use of mental representations. Primates are good at apparently working out problems "in their heads" without taking a risk required in more overt "trial-and-error" learning. How they get specific bits of knowledge remains to be determined -- is it from memory of prior experiences, observations of others in similar situations, instinct, lucky guess? Probably all of these work together in any given case.
(Humans carry this to an extreme with overt models of situations -- experiments, model planes, math models -- but other primates seem to be able to use visual imagery. Human minds are filled with "tools" --language, math, logic -- that can represent virtually anything. These are cultural "add ons" not found in the naive mind.)
Memory plays a role in these cognitive processes for obvious reasons -- see long life above. For example the "law of effect" in trial and error learning could not work without a tacit memory of prior succeses and failures.
What's intelligence?. More on this later but my idea of "intelligence" has to do with the degree of "flexibility" in the individual organism in regard to solving problems. This leads to the idea that intelligence can only be assessed when we know how a problem is solved. If the organism has little choice or degrees of freedom, then little intelligence is involved -- on the other hand -- if there are lots of alternatives and the correct solution is found, that indicates intelligence. Thus flying is not particularly indicative of intelligence in birds but it would be in primates. Instinctive behaviors therefor typically are not indicative of "intelligence" -- just the opposite as they require little and all the species do it as result of being a normal species member.
You might ask yourselves as you watch these videos, why are most of these non-human primates considered on the brink of extinction, e.g. maybe six or seven thousand gorillas compared with 6 or 7 billion humans? And just 150,000 years ago there were amost no humans!!
Thursday: finish Gorilla, Little Joe notes, maybe gorilla video bits, prosopagnosia, and heterochrony in human- chimp head development.
For old exams, go to exam page. If you have specific questions while reviewing, send them to Blackboard. I will check it several times a day. Maybe someone else has asked a similar question.
If you ask about a specific question on an old exam or study guide, write out the question completely. Don't say "I'm having a problem with #23 on the 1957 exam."
Look briefly at the recent news items-- we've been talking about hands, faces, diet, baboons, skin color-- all in recent news items.
Tuesday- brief review, see New Chimps video (common and bonobo chimpanzees). Read this article on the possible effects of human intervention, even observation, on chimp habitats. Jane Goodall, for example, piled up bananas at first to get chimps close enough to observe.
Thursday- look over study guide, especially essays and some historical figures incl Nadia Kohts.
Discuss primate senses briefly; see video Extreme Senses as time allows.
Any questions on the above (week 3 comments) on primate cognition?
More examples of anthropomorphism-- sound tracks and emotion.
What's the difference between a monkey and an ape?
They have a lot in common, naturally, and there's a lot of overlap. But -- monkeys are generally much smaller and can have tails (NW monkeys only have tails and no apes do; no apes live in the NW; barbary apes are macaque monkeys.) . No ape has a tail and only the gibbons (known as lesser apes) are close in size to the larger monkeys. Apes seem to have shoulders more adapted for swinging through trees rather than running and jumping. Apes tend to have larger relative brain size (though some smaller monkeys like capuchins may be competitive). See this zoo site for more info -- including another summary of the primate family that may be useful for essay #2.
In fact, social complexity may be one of the most important factors in the synergy of human evolution --pushing up brain size, greater social bonding, and communication complexity (i.e. human language evolution.) As we know, all this is synergistic with reproduction-- brain size, cervical opening, immature infants , and dependent mothers.
Visit the comparative brain museum. Comments on brain topics. EW notes.
Wednesday, February 18th, Murkland 115, 4 - 6 pm
"Baboons and Farmers: Impacts of Imposed Conservation in a Forest Park Landscape in East Afica"
Assistant Professor of Geography, UNH
exam 1 - will take at least 10 days to grade
Topics for Tuesday -- finish "extreme senses" video, summarize a few points about primate brains:
WHAT ABOUT PRIMATE BRAINS FOR THIS EXAM?
1. The larger primates, monkeys, apes, and humans have unusually large brains for mammals their size.
2. All are based on the same general "plan". Specific changes other than size include mosaic adaptations for better vision, vocal communication in humans and maybe others, and a reduction in brain space devoted to olfaction. Each species may have specific adaptations for unique behaviors.
3. The larger ape brains are very similar to one another, with brain size being related to body size. Thus some gorilla and orangutan males pushing over 400 pounds have similar sized brains over 400cc. Humans may have brains three times larger than the largest ape brains, 1200 to 1400 cc.
4. Slow maturing brains of apes and humans, relative to other mammals, enables greater behavioral flexibility and learning from mother's experiences. Human brains are born prematurely and continue growth after birth for several years more than chimp and other ape brains. This premature birth interacts with other aspects of human development including birth requirements and subsequent social structure adjustments supporting human mothers unlike other apes.
5. The large human brain may have forced a substantial reorganization in regard to the functioning of the right and left hemispheres. The effect of this may have been to enable even more independent processing within the hemispheres and enhancing computational power. (More on this later in regard to language and consciousness.)
6. This raises the question of costs and benefits of a large brain- costs include food requirements, temperature control and blood supply, and birth issues. Benefits include great cognitive and behavioral flexibility.
Any exam questions, essays? See EW notes end of week 4 above.
Review brain features above; how does size and structure contribute to intelligence? What IS intelligence?
Traditional answers often have to do with individual's ability to adapt to new circumstances. In humans, this has been "measured" by various kinds of problem solving. Again we come back to something like behavioral flexibility--primates, especially monkeys, apes and humans are excellent problem solvers.
Understanding the issue is complicated by many issues and differences in definitions and means of evaluation "intelligence." Here are a few guidelines:
1.Performance alone does not indicate intelligence. At the very least you need to know HOW the organism solves the problem AND something about the behavioral history of that organism.
2. There are three possibiliities (below) in explaining what seems like clever behavior; all may be combined in a given situation, Consider Edward Thorndike's (1874-1949) research on cats, chickens, and monkeys circa 1900.
reflex or instinct
trial and error
some variation of social priming
3.Jean Piaget (1886-1980) working with children observed a series of stages common to all children. The earliest stages -- he called these indicators of sensori-motor intelligence -- occurred over the first two years. Subsequent primatologists have used these stages to compare nonhuman primate development. Gomez discusses these and several of the significant "milestones" -- discovery of causality, tool use, object permanence....
4. Children normally transcend the S-M stages about at about two years-- moving on into what Piaget called the symbolic or figurative stage involving use of symbols and development of language. Apes rarely demonstrate any of these behaviors though Kohler argued some do and recent research has re-opened the question of the extent of non-human primate cognition and use of symbols.
briefly discuss trial and error as component of intelligence (see class slides)
show Jay Leno "Pentagon" example of "unintelligent" trial and error.
video "Ape Genius" There is also a webpage for Ai- the Japanese chimp.
Exam 1 grades will be posted sometime late Friday--I hope.
One theme in the Ape Genius video is that-- at least on sensorimotor cognition (See Piaget's stages--causality, trial and error learning, and tool-use) there seems nothing qualitatively different between apes and humans. Yet there are two related questions raised.
1. Why haven't apes "taken off" from these basic skills? Apes seem to be cracking nuts just as they did 4500 years ago (from some evidenced published last year.) While there are some so-called cultural traditions in ape (and monkey--remember Imo in Life in the Trees?) life, there seems to be a lot of re-inventiing the wheel and spinning the existing ones. Are they missing something? (Or are they just happy in their work!)
2. Does human language really add much to the common ape-human brain such that we humans have become much different? For example does language enable social skills? Facilitiate cooperation? Enable teaching and accumulation of knowledge? Or did theses social skills pave the way for increasingly sophisticated homo X language forms? Or are there several factors, synergistically interacting with language? There is very little evidence that non-humans get much into Piaget's symbolic stage. Even Kohler's "insight" seems to be a limited visual cognition process. See Kohler, W. (1925). The mentality of apes. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co.
And, even with human intervention, apes taught a "human based code" (HBC) rarely exceed the pre-syntactic language of 2 to 3 year old children.
The same generalization holds for basic cognitive and social skills. See the summary and video clips of Herrmann, E., Call, J., Hernandez-Lloreda, M. V., Hare, B., & Tomasello, M. (2007). Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cogntion: The cultural intelligence hypothesis. Science, 317, 1360-1366.
Participants included 105 children 53F, 52M age 30 months and apes (orangutans & chimps) -- at various ages 3 to 21 years. (Once again its 2+ year-old humans vs the "'apes."
Limber, J. (1977). Language in child and chimp? American Psychologist, 32, 280-295 (Reprinted in Sebeok, T. & Sebeok, J. (Eds.) (1980). Speaking of Apes (pp.1197-1218). New York: Plenum Press.).
3. Where then, did language come from? Darwin thought it must be a development based on animal communication. Surely that is part of the story-- vocal tracts are widely used in birds and mammals for a variety of adaptive functions. Hearing must accompany vocalization. Other nonvocal gestures also serve in animal communication functions -- including finding mates, defending territory, mother-infant communication, social integration and organization, and expressing emotions. All of these complex behaviors are millions of years old. (See timetable.)
But they differ in fundamental ways from human language; perhaps most significantly animal systems have no way of adding new messages in a systematic way.
Language scientists describe such animal systems as "closed" and human language as an "open" system.
While human languages are changing constantly-- adding new words, dropping old words -- there is very little if any of that in animal systems. And on top of that, we humans can rearrange our existing words-- all 50,000 or more of them -- into new messages (sentences) that no one has ever used before and yet we can understand them because we share the grammatical system and its vocabulary.
Language scientists describe this as linguistic creativity or novelty and is extremely rare in animal systems. (I can't even think of an example!)
To sum up, animal systems are closed and human language is open in two ways-- adding new words as needed and recombining the thousands of existing words into novel sentences.
So then, how did this evolve? Is human language ability just a result of our advanced cognitive processes or was it a primary cause in the evolution of those abilities? Or was it some of each-- a co-evolutionary process where language, brain and vocal tract, and culture interacted over the last few hundred thousand or more years, leaving us today with over 6000 dialects of the human language?
This language is an essential human "mind tool" that amplifies our social and cognitive processes and enabled the accelerating divergence of homo Sapiens from its ape and earlier homo X ancestors.
****Finish Language video Thursday; see notes****
Comment on research projects. You may submit your topic, sample references, and brief outline any time but at least by April 09. E-mail submission is fine--(but not for final papers which must be printed.)
Review library search procedure. (This ppt presentation was prepared by my assistant, Erika Wells; the online version is not particularly good but it will help remind you if you need it.)
Demonstrate one search topic in Primate Lit, google scholar, Ebscohost (UNH library)
While trial and error processes are the main source of new knowledge, there are extremely important roles for cognitive processes (memory for outcomes, etc.) and social processes (social priming, mirror neurons, explicit teaching, etc. ) that serve to reduce the trials needed for success.
Even direct transfer of knowledge by language probably requires a certain amount of trial and error in comprehension and skillful use of that knowledge.
The significance of "mirror neurons." video and new paper:
Gallese, V. (2008). Mirror neurons and the social nature of language: The neural exploitation hypothesis. Social Neuroscience, 3, 317-333. (on Blackboard now; reading it is optional)
Here's an older paper, specifically investigating the relation between hearing speech and producing speech, mediated by "mirror neurons" linking sensory inputs to motor outputs (speech). Imagine how likely human language acquistion would be if we had to use unrestricted trial and error learning with language!
Read an interesting paper on the evolution of language and that FOX2P gene. Here's a quote
"FOXP2 evolved to its present form roughly 200,000 years ago, and perhaps as recently as 120,000 years ago. The era in which this change transpired was a very interesting one: It is when the explosion of modern human behaviors appears in the fossil record, and was the likely time of the last migration out of Africa.
Is it possible that this mutation simply produced better-sounding, less-slurred speech? It seems unlikely. What show up in the archeological record around this time are drastically different human behaviors. For instance, Marta Camps and I have shown that there is no evidence for the ability to tie and untie knots prior to the FOXP2 mutation. No other animals besides humans can tie or untie knots, and based on its computational complexity, it seems likely that this ability is a parasite, piggybacking on the mechanics of language. It was knots which then gave us the means to produce footwear, arrows, jewelry, and other similar objects not observed prior to this time. The mutation in FOXP2, therefore, came in concert with some deep advances in cognitive abilities that are unique to humans."
Language evolution and primate tool use.
video: example ape-child cog-social tests, human hand, language bits: Vicki & Hayes' research, children (vocal, complex syntax, theory of mind (ToM) , NSL?)
finish video bits- human hand, NSL, tool-use (chimp vs baboon; Chantek, others), and anthropomorphism pitfalls (Pippen and Clever Hans.)
review tool-use--Is there a connection with language? (left hemisphere, FOXP2, hand/finger flexibility? We know that tool use goes back over 2mya with homo Habilis, way before modern brains and vocal tracts which are less than 500,000--more like 200,000 years old. ) Could an ape ever learn even a human sign language? Language may be humans most advanced tool.
See older communication notes and sketch of human language development.
Exam 2 on Thursday: See old exams, work out answers to study guide essays, and use the google pubpages to find specific info.
I will check the Discussion board on BlackBoard for questions a few times a day.
Keep up the good work!
Think about research projects
Evolution of language as a social-cognitive-biological process ??
video bits: Clever Hans, Kanzi, NSL, theory of mind
The question of object permanence in apes is discussed in Gomez (2004). Here are some notes in addition to GOmez' conclusion that apes have it too! Recall the video bit comparing termite catching in baboons vs chimps.
See the news item on chimp strength; it also relates indirectly to movement skills we have discussed. THe fine grain movements available to humans but not apes. PErhaps that is the reason our heads are so large? Compare, for example, signing in Koko with the children using the Nicaraguan sign language (NSL). And consider the behavioral flexibility of the human hand --Alan Alda video on hands-- compared with apes hands, which of course are much more advanced than other primates. The recent news item on stone blades at 500K years in Kenya suggest that language -- if built on a larger, lateralized brain indicated by tool making -- may have primitive beginnings a few hundreds thousand years before modern humans emerged.
Here is a recent news report from Slate Magazine on ape "talk."
video feature- "Murder in the troop"!! While baboons are not apes, they have been seen as good models for understanding humans-- they are very social, live in large groups, have a complex social hierarchy with a dominant male who migrates into the group and may fight his way to the top. This video illustrates, with Hollywood drama, the life of a baboon troop. There are lots of very anthropomorphic claims-- "She... in vane hopes that..." as well as mood music.
research project info needs two full (complete) references since 2006.
Tuesday- finish language & dexterity topics, Koko (above) and NSL. (Recall the Language video where slaves escaped, lived together without a common language but formed a "pidgin"-- enabling basic communication but not a full grammatical language. Surprisingly the children of these escaped slaves created a full grammatical language called a "creole." Well, a similar process occurred in Nicaragua, this time with sign. Many deaf children used gestures (pidgin) in their families but had no education/exposure to a full sign language. Brought together in new school for the deaf, they created a full sign language (analogous to the creoles) on their collective own.
Koko not only doesn't use a full ASL language, she doesn't seem to have the manual and facial dexterity that humans have. She does however respond appropriately to hundreds of gestures and has the appearance of comprehending signs and spoken language to her. Are these skills antecedents to human languages??
Overview of primate social/sexual life. Start Orphan to King video-- the saga of Mr. Kasasi. finish Thurs day 41:55
read a follow-up to the video here. and you might want to review the orang article on BB.
More of primate sexual/social relationships, Titus the Gorilla King is coming soon. 28.07
not the only ape to mate face to face!
Be sure to read the Strier article in TO where she points out bonobo social-sexual behaviors may be similar to those in some monkeys.
Goodall "Return to Gombe" video. Below are excerpts from recent interview with Jane in Salon Magazine:
"Your (Jane's) research showed that chimpanzees have sophisticated emotional and mental capacities, which raises a big question: How unique are human beings?"
"It's the explosive development of our intellect that sets us apart. I personally believe that this happened because we, and only we, have developed the kind of language that enables us to teach about things that are not present, to tell stories, learn from the past, plan the distant future and perhaps most important of all, gather together a group of people to discuss a new idea. That has really stimulated the growth of the intellect.
So if this is what makes us more human than anything else, makes us the most intellectual being that's ever walked the planet -- able to arrange the environment to suit our needs, able to create technology to go to the moon -- then why are we destroying our only home? That is so unintelligent of us."
Mate choice and attraction video bits
reproduction and parenting , effects of early experiences on adult primates (Harry Harlow)
read notes on aggression and recent news items. Review social-sexual-reproductive aspects of humans and large primates. (See topic notes on these topics.)
Show Responsive Brain . Touch, as Harlow found decades earlier, was a very positive factor in infant development. Read about epigenetics in the news and here.
Help on research papers? Be sure to have at least two recent references, one from a reviewed scientific journal.
Read these notes on Ethics
Tuesday, May 05 discuss ethical issues (above); questions on exam? Projects?
video : Gorillas as pests' and "macaques of Bali"-- the future of free-living non-human primates?
No class Thursday! I can answer email questions about projects through next Monday if you put 512 in subject heading.