I. MULTIPLE CHOICE AND TRUE OR FALSE (CIRCLE THE BEST ANSWER).
(2 POINTS EACH)
1. The Phylum Porifera belongs to the subkingdom
2. In animals, gametes are formed as a result of
c. binary fission
3. Gametes are
4. Which of the following is not an important criterium in the classification of animal groups.
a. body symmetry
b. early embryological development
c. type of body cavity
d. all of the above are important
5. Jellyfish are characterized by having
a. bilateral symmetry
b. radial symmetry
c. amorphous body plan
6. Animals are
7. In Protostomes the coelom begins as splits within the mesoderm tissue (schizocoelous).
8. Animals with solid bodies, lacking a body cavity.
9. A body cavity derived from the mesoderm layer of embryonic tissue and surrounds the digestive tract.
10. In Deuterostomes, the blastopore of early embryonic development eventually forms the
c. gills slits
11. The pseudocoelom is characteristic of the phylum
12. Harpoon-like stinging structures occurring in cnidocytes imbedded in tentacles in the Phylum Cnidaria are called
13. Sponges trap food particles as water flows in through pores into a central cavity and out through the
14. The larval stage of the phylum Porifera is
a. free-swimming, planktonic
15. Which of the following protist groups is most likely ancestral to the Phylum Porifera
a. Dinoflagellata (dinoflagellates)
b. Choanoflagellida (colonial flagellates)
c. Zoomastigophora (zooflagellates)
d. Ciliophora (ciliates)
16. In the Phylum Cnidaria extracellular digestion takes place in the
b. gastrovascular cavity
d. epithelial cells
17. Organisms with feeding cells called choanocytes belong to the phylum
18. The larval stage of the jellyfish is called a
19. Organisms which secrete calcareous exoskeletons, grow in large colonies, and contribute greatly in the build-up of reefs in shallow tropical seas.
d. sea feathers
20. Organisms which have a polyp stage and a medusa stage belong to the phylum
21. Which of the following flatworms are not parasitic?
d. all of the above are parasitic
e. a and c only are not
22. The germ layer ectoderm gives rise to muscles and the skeletal system.
23. Tapeworms and flukes belong to the phylum
24. Most of the body of the tapeworm consists of segments which are largely involved in reproduction and are termed the
25. Human liver fluke (Chinese liver fluke) is a parasite especially common in the Orient and can infest humans if a human eats raw
26. In Planarians (Platyhelmenthes) the flame cells function as the
a. nervous system
b. sensory system
c. excretory system
d. reproductive system
27. The pseudocoelom functions as a
a. hydrostatic skeleton
b. digestive tract
c. circulatory system
28. Parapodia occur in the annelid class Polychaeta and function as gills.
29. Which of the following organisms belongs to the phylum Annelida?
30. In the excretory system of the earthworm, structures called _____ eliminate nitrogenous wastes from the body cavity.
a. nephridia (metanephridia)
31. A hermaphrodite is an organism which
a. reproduces asexually
b. has both male and female organs
c. has male or female organs
d. has female organs only (males don't exist)
32. Which of the following groups have a closed circulatory system?
33. Snails and slugs belong to the mollusk class
34. In mollusks, the heavy fold of tissue covering the visceral mass and secretes the shell (not to mention making pearls in oysters) is called
35. Which class of the Phylum Mollusca is highly advanced, possessing a complex brain, well-developed eyes, a closed circulatory system and a carnivorous feeding style?
36. Which of the following organisms are not members of the phylum Arthropoda?
f. horseshoe crabs
g. all are arthropods
37. Which is the largest phylum of organisms?
38. Marine annelids have a free-swimming, ciliated larval stage called a trochophore. Which of the following has a similar larval stage called a trochophore?
39. The flight wings of insects are made of thin sheets of ____.
40. Which organ in insects distinguishes light from dark and functions to detect the horizon for stabilization in flight?
b. compound eyes
c. simple eyes (ocelli)
41. The respiratory organs in the phylum Arthropoda.
a. book lungs
d. all of the above
e. b and c only
42. What type of body symmetry is found in the larvae of the Phylum Echinodermata?
43. In Echinoderms, the tube feet are important for locomotion, gas exchange, and detecting tastes.
44. Chordates have a ventral nerve cord.
45. Echinoderms have a well-developed 3-part brain.
46. Tunicates belong to the phylum
47. Sharks and rays belong to the vertebrate class
48. Ostracoderms were ancient jawless fish which appeared in the Cambrian and were characterized by having
a. vertebrae, cartilagenous skeleton, and ventral nerve cord
b. bony plates, bony brain case, notochord
c. cartilagenous plates, vertebrae, and dorsal nerve cord
d. cartilagenous plates, notochord, and bony brain case
49. Which fossil class of fish were most directly ancestral to sharks (Chondrichthyes)?
50. Which fossil class of fish were most directly ancestral to bony fish (Osteichthyes)?
51. Which fossil class of fish were ancestral to lampreys and hagfish?
52. The development of which of the following was critical in the evolution of the reptiles so that they could complete their life cycle on land, apart from water?
c. amniote egg with leathery shell
e. dry, scaly skin
53. Adult amphibians have lungs for breathing on land and ____ for gas exchange in the aquatic environment.
c. thin skin with capillaries
54. In birds, the downy feathers function as insulation.
55. Which of the following are endothermic organisms?
a. reptiles only
b. birds and mammals
c. turtles and birds
d. mammals only
e. amphibians and reptiles
56. Yes or no. Assuming that through the ages birds of a feather always flocked together, would members of the ancient fossil group Archeopteris have flocked together?
57. Birds have flight feathers made of the protein
58. Mammals are characterized by having hair, which is made of the protein
59. Scientists believe that mammals evolved from
a. reptilian stock
b. avian stock
c. amphibian stock
d. soup stock
60. During which portion of the geological time scale were amphibians most diversified and abundant?
d. Triassic and Jurassic
61. During which portion of the geological time scale were Dinosaurs dominant?
d. Triassic and Jurassic
62. During which portion of the geological time scale did mammals diversify and become dominant?
d. Triassic and Jurassic
63. Sexual reproduction results in genetic recombination and therefore increases evolutionary potential.
64. The term for live birth resulting from fertilized eggs which are retained within the uterus, with the embryo nurtured by the yolk of the egg.
d. none of the above
65. Which of the following are characteristic of a reproductive strategy which expresses an r-selection mode of reproduction.
a. large brood size
b. early age of first reproduction
c. parental care
d. multiple breeding seasons
e. short generation time
f. answers a, b, and d
g. answers a, b and e
h. answers c, d, and e
i. answers a, b, d, and e
66. Which type of reproductive strategy is characteristic of a stable environment and adapted to efficiency where each of a small number of offspring is better able to survive in competition for limited resources?
67. FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) is produced by the
b. pituitary gland
c. ovarian follicle
d. corpus luteum
68. The hormone Estrogen causes the uterine wall to become rich in blood vessels and also functions to ____ production of FSH.
c. neither of the above
69. Which hormone works in concert with estrogen to prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilized egg.
a. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
b. Lutinizing Hormone (LH)
d. Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GRH)
70. Sperm production takes place in the
a. vas deferens
c. seminiferous tubules
d. seminal vesicles
71. A sperm count of under 20 million/ml (ca. 100 million per ejaculation) would be considered
72. Early embryological development begins well up in the fallopian tube. At what stage of development is the embryo when it becomes implanted in the uterine wall?
b. blastula (blastocyst)
73. During the early embryonic development in a vertebrate, gastrulation involves the invagination of cells (inpocketing) to form a new cavity called the
d. yolk plug
II. Fill in the blank (2 points each):
74. ________________________ Reptile skin is well-adapted to the dry environment because of a protective
layer of scales containing the protein ____.
75. ________________________ The water vascular system is unique to the phylum ________.
76. ________________________ An evolutionary trend or development whereby there is a concentration
of sensory tissues or organs at the anterior end of an animal.
77. ________________________ The rigid exoskeleton of arthropods is made of ____.
78. ________________________ In the arthropods (crustaceans and arachnids), oxygen is transported in the
hemolymph by a bluish pigment, with copper as the oxygen-binding component, called ____.
79. ________________________ Chemical messages emitted by female insects to attract males for
mating are called ____.
80. ________________________ Chordates are characterized by the presence of a flexible rod, the ____,
at some stage of the life cycle.
81. ________________________ Buoyancy is maintained in the sharks by ability to store oil in the ____
while buoyancy is
82. ________________________ maintained in the bony fish by means of a structure called the ____.
83. ________________________ In vertebrates, oxygen is transported in the blood by the respiratory
pigment, with iron as the oxygen-binding component, called ____.
84. ________________________ In mammals, live birth is characteristic of all groups except ____.
85. ________________________ Development of an adult organism from an unfertilized egg
86. ________________________ Animals which regulate body temperature by taking heat from the
environment (ectothermic) are called ____.
87. ________________________ The period of "in heat" corresponding to ovulation events during the periodic
cycle is called ____.
88. ________________________ Embryonic blocks of mesoderm that give rise to muscles are called ____.
89. ________________________ The male hormone responsible for developing male organ development and
secondary male characteristics.
90. ________________________ The stage of embryonic development at which time cells divide rapidly
causing an invagination of cells creating a new cavity, the archenteron, and beginning the formation of the three germ layers.
91. ________________________ The membrane which directly envelops the developing embryo is called
92. ________________________ The embryonic germ layer which gives rise to the formation of the nervous
system and sensory organs (eye, inner ear).
III. Matching (1 point each): Match the organism with the correct taxonomic group.
_____ Kangaroo A. Agnatha
_____ Lobster B. Amphibia
_____ Crocodile C. Echinodermata
_____ Eagle D. Aves
_____ Acorn Worm E. Cephalochordata
_____ Horseshoe Crab F. Chelicerata
_____ Tunicate G. Crustacea
_____ Lancet H. Condrichthyes
_____ Crinoids I. Hemichordata
_____ Bony Fish J. Marsupial
_____ Shark K. Monotrem
_____ Salamander L. Osteichthyes