Total Name______________________________________

Points: 250

 

 

BIOLOGY 412

 

EXAM III

 

I. MULTIPLE CHOICE AND TRUE OR FALSE (CIRCLE THE BEST ANSWER).

(2 POINTS EACH)

 

1. The Phylum Porifera belongs to the subkingdom

 

a. Eumetazoa

b. Parazoa

c. Ectozoa

d. Phytozoa

 

2. In animals, gametes are formed as a result of

 

a. meiosis

b. mitosis

c. binary fission

 

3. Gametes are

 

a. haploid

b. diploid

 

4. Which of the following is not an important criterium in the classification of animal groups.

 

a. body symmetry

b. early embryological development

c. type of body cavity

d. all of the above are important

5. Jellyfish are characterized by having

 

a. bilateral symmetry

b. radial symmetry

c. amorphous body plan

6. Animals are

 

a. autotrophs

b. chemotrophs

c. heterotrophs

d. zygotrophs

 

7. In Protostomes the coelom begins as splits within the mesoderm tissue (schizocoelous).

 

a. True

b. False

 

8. Animals with solid bodies, lacking a body cavity.

 

a. coelomates

b. pseudocoelomates

c. acoelomates

d. biocoelomates

 

9. A body cavity derived from the mesoderm layer of embryonic tissue and surrounds the digestive tract.

 

a. coelom

b. pseudocoelom

c. epicoelom

 

10. In Deuterostomes, the blastopore of early embryonic development eventually forms the

 

a. mouth

b. anus

c. gills slits

d. gonopore

 

11. The pseudocoelom is characteristic of the phylum

 

a. Porifera

b. Annelida

c. Nematoda

d. Platyhelmenthes

e. Arthropoda

 

12. Harpoon-like stinging structures occurring in cnidocytes imbedded in tentacles in the Phylum Cnidaria are called

 

a. barbs

b. neumocysts

c. nematocysts

d. neumatocytes

13. Sponges trap food particles as water flows in through pores into a central cavity and out through the

 

a. osculum

b. mouth

c. spicules

d. anus

 

14. The larval stage of the phylum Porifera is

 

a. free-swimming, planktonic

b. sessile

c. parasitic

 

15. Which of the following protist groups is most likely ancestral to the Phylum Porifera

 

a. Dinoflagellata (dinoflagellates)

b. Choanoflagellida (colonial flagellates)

c. Zoomastigophora (zooflagellates)

d. Ciliophora (ciliates)

 

16. In the Phylum Cnidaria extracellular digestion takes place in the

 

a. amoebocytes

b. gastrovascular cavity

c. mesoglea

d. epithelial cells

 

17. Organisms with feeding cells called choanocytes belong to the phylum

 

a. Cnidardia

b. Porifera

c. Nematoda

d. Platyhelmenthes

 

18. The larval stage of the jellyfish is called a

 

a. tadpole

b. planula

c. polyp

d. flagellate

e. trochophore

19. Organisms which secrete calcareous exoskeletons, grow in large colonies, and contribute greatly in the build-up of reefs in shallow tropical seas.

 

a. sponges

b. hydra

c. corals

d. sea feathers

 

20. Organisms which have a polyp stage and a medusa stage belong to the phylum

 

a. Porifera

b. Annelida

c. Nematoda

d. Platyhelmenthes

e. Cnidaria

 

21. Which of the following flatworms are not parasitic?

 

a. planarians

b. tapeworms

c. flukes

d. all of the above are parasitic

e. a and c only are not

22. The germ layer ectoderm gives rise to muscles and the skeletal system.

 

a. True

b. False

 

23. Tapeworms and flukes belong to the phylum

 

a. Cnidaria

b. Porifera

c. Platyhelmenthes

d. Annelida

e. Nematoda

 

24. Most of the body of the tapeworm consists of segments which are largely involved in reproduction and are termed the

 

a. scolex

b. proglottids

c. uterus

d. cysts

25. Human liver fluke (Chinese liver fluke) is a parasite especially common in the Orient and can infest humans if a human eats raw

 

a. fish

b. pork

c. beef

de. snails

 

26. In Planarians (Platyhelmenthes) the flame cells function as the

 

a. nervous system

b. sensory system

c. excretory system

d. reproductive system

 

27. The pseudocoelom functions as a

 

a. hydrostatic skeleton

b. digestive tract

c. circulatory system

d. exoskeleton

 

28. Parapodia occur in the annelid class Polychaeta and function as gills.

 

a. True

b. False

 

29. Which of the following organisms belongs to the phylum Annelida?

 

a. flukes

b. leeches

c. nematodes

d. flatworms

 

30. In the excretory system of the earthworm, structures called _____ eliminate nitrogenous wastes from the body cavity.

 

a. nephridia (metanephridia)

b. setae

c. ganglia

d. kidneys

 

31. A hermaphrodite is an organism which

 

a. reproduces asexually

b. has both male and female organs

c. has male or female organs

d. has female organs only (males don't exist)

32. Which of the following groups have a closed circulatory system?

 

a. sponges

b. annelids

c. clams

d. insects

e. lobsters

 

33. Snails and slugs belong to the mollusk class

 

a. Polyplacophora

b. Gastropoda

c. Bivalva

d. Cephalopoda

 

34. In mollusks, the heavy fold of tissue covering the visceral mass and secretes the shell (not to mention making pearls in oysters) is called

 

a. foot

b. mantle

c. nephridium

d. trochophore

 

35. Which class of the Phylum Mollusca is highly advanced, possessing a complex brain, well-developed eyes, a closed circulatory system and a carnivorous feeding style?

 

a. Polyphacophora

b. Gastropoda

c. Bivalva

d. Cephalopoda

 

36. Which of the following organisms are not members of the phylum Arthropoda?

 

a. spiders

b. crayfish

c. crickets

d. butterflies

e. centipedes

f. horseshoe crabs

g. all are arthropods

 

37. Which is the largest phylum of organisms?

 

a. Mollusca

b. Arthropoda

c. Annelida

d. Echinodermata

e. Chordata

38. Marine annelids have a free-swimming, ciliated larval stage called a trochophore. Which of the following has a similar larval stage called a trochophore?

 

a. Mollusca

b. Arthropoda

c. Cnidaria

d. Echinodermata

 

39. The flight wings of insects are made of thin sheets of ____.

 

a. dermis

b. chitin

c. mesoglea

d. mucus

e. cartilage

 

40. Which organ in insects distinguishes light from dark and functions to detect the horizon for stabilization in flight?

 

a. tympanum

b. compound eyes

c. simple eyes (ocelli)

d. antennae

 

41. The respiratory organs in the phylum Arthropoda.

 

a. book lungs

b. tracheae

c. gills

d. all of the above

e. b and c only

 

42. What type of body symmetry is found in the larvae of the Phylum Echinodermata?

 

a. radial

b. bilateral

c. spiral

 

43. In Echinoderms, the tube feet are important for locomotion, gas exchange, and detecting tastes.

 

a. True

b. False

 

44. Chordates have a ventral nerve cord.

 

a. True

b. False

45. Echinoderms have a well-developed 3-part brain.

 

a. True

b. False

 

46. Tunicates belong to the phylum

 

a. Porifera

b. Mollusca

c. Echinodermata

d. Chordata

e. Hemichordata

f. Cnidaria

 

47. Sharks and rays belong to the vertebrate class

 

a. Agnantha

b. Chondrichthyes

c. Osteichthyes

d. Amphibia

 

48. Ostracoderms were ancient jawless fish which appeared in the Cambrian and were characterized by having

 

a. vertebrae, cartilagenous skeleton, and ventral nerve cord

b. bony plates, bony brain case, notochord

c. cartilagenous plates, vertebrae, and dorsal nerve cord

d. cartilagenous plates, notochord, and bony brain case

 

49. Which fossil class of fish were most directly ancestral to sharks (Chondrichthyes)?

 

a. Agnantha

b. Acanthodii

c. Placodermi

 

50. Which fossil class of fish were most directly ancestral to bony fish (Osteichthyes)?

 

a. Agnantha

b. Acanthodii

c. Placodermi

 

51. Which fossil class of fish were ancestral to lampreys and hagfish?

 

a. Agnantha

b. Acanthodii

c. Placodermi

52. The development of which of the following was critical in the evolution of the reptiles so that they could complete their life cycle on land, apart from water?

 

a. notochord

b. lungs

c. amniote egg with leathery shell

d. vertebrae

e. dry, scaly skin

 

53. Adult amphibians have lungs for breathing on land and ____ for gas exchange in the aquatic environment.

 

a. tracheae

b. gills

c. thin skin with capillaries

d. parapodia

 

54. In birds, the downy feathers function as insulation.

 

a. true

b. false

 

55. Which of the following are endothermic organisms?

 

a. reptiles only

b. birds and mammals

c. turtles and birds

d. mammals only

e. amphibians and reptiles

 

56. Yes or no. Assuming that through the ages birds of a feather always flocked together, would members of the ancient fossil group Archeopteris have flocked together?

 

a. Yes

b. No

 

57. Birds have flight feathers made of the protein

 

a. keratin

b. chitin

c. carotene

d. cartilage

58. Mammals are characterized by having hair, which is made of the protein

 

a. keratin

b. chitin

c. carotene

d. cartilage

 

59. Scientists believe that mammals evolved from

 

a. reptilian stock

b. avian stock

c. amphibian stock

d. soup stock

 

60. During which portion of the geological time scale were amphibians most diversified and abundant?

 

a. Cambrian

b. Carboniferous

c. Permian

d. Triassic and Jurassic

e. Tertiary

 

61. During which portion of the geological time scale were Dinosaurs dominant?

 

a. Cambrian

b. Carboniferous

c. Permian

d. Triassic and Jurassic

e. Tertiary

 

62. During which portion of the geological time scale did mammals diversify and become dominant?

 

a. Cambrian

b. Carboniferous

c. Permian

d. Triassic and Jurassic

e. Tertiary

 

63. Sexual reproduction results in genetic recombination and therefore increases evolutionary potential.

 

a. True

b. False

64. The term for live birth resulting from fertilized eggs which are retained within the uterus, with the embryo nurtured by the yolk of the egg.

 

a. ovipary

b. ovovivipary

c. vivipary

d. none of the above

 

65. Which of the following are characteristic of a reproductive strategy which expresses an r-selection mode of reproduction.

 

a. large brood size

b. early age of first reproduction

c. parental care

d. multiple breeding seasons

e. short generation time

f. answers a, b, and d

g. answers a, b and e

h. answers c, d, and e

i. answers a, b, d, and e

 

66. Which type of reproductive strategy is characteristic of a stable environment and adapted to efficiency where each of a small number of offspring is better able to survive in competition for limited resources?

 

a. r-selection

b. K-selection

 

67. FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) is produced by the

 

a. ovary

b. pituitary gland

c. ovarian follicle

d. corpus luteum

 

68. The hormone Estrogen causes the uterine wall to become rich in blood vessels and also functions to ____ production of FSH.

 

a. inhibit

b. stimulate

c. neither of the above

69. Which hormone works in concert with estrogen to prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilized egg.

 

a. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

b. Lutinizing Hormone (LH)

c. Progesterone

d. Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GRH)

 

70. Sperm production takes place in the

 

a. vas deferens

b. epididymis

c. seminiferous tubules

d. seminal vesicles

 

71. A sperm count of under 20 million/ml (ca. 100 million per ejaculation) would be considered

 

a. fertile

b. infertile

 

72. Early embryological development begins well up in the fallopian tube. At what stage of development is the embryo when it becomes implanted in the uterine wall?

 

a. morula

b. blastula (blastocyst)

c. gastrula

 

73. During the early embryonic development in a vertebrate, gastrulation involves the invagination of cells (inpocketing) to form a new cavity called the

 

a. archenteron

b. gastrocoel

c. blastocoel

d. yolk plug

II. Fill in the blank (2 points each):

 

74. ________________________ Reptile skin is well-adapted to the dry environment because of a protective

layer of scales containing the protein ____.

 

75. ________________________ The water vascular system is unique to the phylum ________.

 

76. ________________________ An evolutionary trend or development whereby there is a concentration

of sensory tissues or organs at the anterior end of an animal.

 

77. ________________________ The rigid exoskeleton of arthropods is made of ____.

 

78. ________________________ In the arthropods (crustaceans and arachnids), oxygen is transported in the

hemolymph by a bluish pigment, with copper as the oxygen-binding component, called ____.

 

79. ________________________ Chemical messages emitted by female insects to attract males for

mating are called ____.

 

80. ________________________ Chordates are characterized by the presence of a flexible rod, the ____,

at some stage of the life cycle.

 

81. ________________________ Buoyancy is maintained in the sharks by ability to store oil in the ____

while buoyancy is

82. ________________________ maintained in the bony fish by means of a structure called the ____.

 

83. ________________________ In vertebrates, oxygen is transported in the blood by the respiratory

pigment, with iron as the oxygen-binding component, called ____.

 

 

84. ________________________ In mammals, live birth is characteristic of all groups except ____.

 

85. ________________________ Development of an adult organism from an unfertilized egg

 

86. ________________________ Animals which regulate body temperature by taking heat from the

environment (ectothermic) are called ____.

 

87. ________________________ The period of "in heat" corresponding to ovulation events during the periodic

cycle is called ____.

88. ________________________ Embryonic blocks of mesoderm that give rise to muscles are called ____.

 

89. ________________________ The male hormone responsible for developing male organ development and

secondary male characteristics.

 

90. ________________________ The stage of embryonic development at which time cells divide rapidly

causing an invagination of cells creating a new cavity, the archenteron, and beginning the formation of the three germ layers.

 

91. ________________________ The membrane which directly envelops the developing embryo is called

the ____.

 

92. ________________________ The embryonic germ layer which gives rise to the formation of the nervous

system and sensory organs (eye, inner ear).

 

 

III. Matching (1 point each): Match the organism with the correct taxonomic group.

 

_____ Kangaroo A. Agnatha

 

_____ Lobster B. Amphibia

 

_____ Crocodile C. Echinodermata

 

_____ Eagle D. Aves

 

_____ Acorn Worm E. Cephalochordata

 

_____ Horseshoe Crab F. Chelicerata

 

_____ Tunicate G. Crustacea

 

_____ Lancet H. Condrichthyes

 

_____ Crinoids I. Hemichordata

 

_____ Bony Fish J. Marsupial

 

_____ Shark K. Monotrem

 

_____ Salamander L. Osteichthyes

 

M. Reptilia

 

N. Urochordata