b chlorophyll a & d
c chlorophyll a & b
2) The bryophytes and vascular plants probably evolved from the a Cyanobacteria
3) The female gamete develops within a(an) a zygote
4) The first stage of the sporophyte generation is a zygote
5) In which of the following does the zygote develop into an embryo? a Bryophyta
f All of the above
g None of the above
6) In which of the following is the male gamete motile?
a Bryophyta and Pterophyta
b Pterophyta only
c Anthophyta and Pterophyta
d Bryophyta and Anthophyta
7) Rhynia, a primitive vascular plant of the Devonian period
a consisted of stems, roots and leaves
b consisted of stems and leaves, but lacked roots
c consisted of stems only, aerial and rhizomes
d lacked xylem
8) Which of the following plants discussed in lecture and seen in lab has characteristics very similar to the primitive Devonian Rhyniophytes?
9) The vascular plants first appeared in the fossil record during the
10) The gametophyte plant body is
11) The modern Lycopods (Lycophyta) represent survivors of a line of plants predominant in carboniferous swamps characterized by
a stem without vascular tissue
b lacking roots and true leaves
c stems, roots and megaphylls
d stems, roots and macrophylls
e stems, roots and microphylls
12) In heterosporous plants the megaspores develop into
a female gametophytes
b female sporophytes
c male gametophytes
d male sporophytes
e female and male gametophytes
f female and male sporophytes
13) A leaf modified for reproduction and bear sporangia is called
14) Which of the following leaf types is characterized by having a leaf gap in the vascular cylinder of the stem?
15) Fossils of the Devonian, Archaeopteris and Callixylon were discovered by Charles Beck to be attached, hence were the same plant. This led to the recognition of an extinct group known as
16) Which of the following geological periods was characterized by a world-wide cool and dry climate, which favored evolutionary diversification of the Seed Plants?
17) Which of the following divisions has the most reduced gametophyte?
18) Annual rings in the cross-section of a tree trunk represent
a primary growth
b secondary growth
c cork cambial activity
19) If a flower of a species expressing self-incompatibility and having a genetic condition of S1 S2 is cross-pollinated with a flower from another plant with a genetic condition of S1 S4, what will be the percentage of fertility?
20) In the plant mode of reproduction known as ________, seeds are produced without fertilization, thus there is no gene flow.
a Heterogmy (Xenogamy)
21) Those plants which are especially well adapted for the rapid build-up of populations in newly disturbed habitats are most likely to have a reproductive mode known as:
a Heterogamy (Xenogamy)
22) In plants, lateral roots are produced by the
c vascular cambium
23) In the typical Angiosperm leaf the portion of the leaf where chloroplasts are heavily concentrated, thus largely responsible for photosynthesis, is ________.
b stomatal apparatus
d spongy mesophyll
e palisade mesophyll
24) The plant hormone important in germination by signalling the digestion of proteins in the aleuron layer of the grass (wheat, oats, corn) grain is a ________.
b abscisic acid
25) An important inhibitor of seed germination, thus promoting seed dormancy in many desert plants is the hormone ________.
a abscisic acid
26) Which hormone is important in the stimulation of cell division?
b abscisic acid
27) The plant hormone critical in the process of fruit ripening is ________.
a abscisic acid
28) Which nutrient is involved in the opening and closing of the stomata?
29) Which of the following are involved in the movement of water in the xylem?
b root pressure
d water potential
e all of the above
f only a and d
30) Cycles that have intervals of approximately 24 hours are called
a arcadian rhythms
b circadian rhythms
c diurnal rhythms
d bipolar rhythms
31) Plants which exhibit crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as an adaptation to a hot, dry environment
a. assimilate CO into organic acids at night
b. open stomata only at night
c. photosynthesize only at night
d. photosynthesize, but close stomata, in daytime
e. b, d
f. a, b, d
g. a, b, c
32) Which of the following are macronutrients?
d. all of the above
e. a and c only
33) When germination of a seed in nature requires the seed to pass through the digestive tract of an animal, the mechanism for breaking dormancy is called
b release of chemical inhibition
34) A physiological response to day length, such as flowering, is called
b phototactical response
II. True or False (2 points each). If the question is true, write the word "True". If the question is false, write one or more word(s) in the blank which will make the statement true.
2. ___________________________ The Chlorophyta, the Bryophyta and the Anthophyta all have chloroplasts with thylakoid membranes stacked into grana.
3. ___________________________ In the Division Sphenophyta, the dispersal unit is the seed.
4. ___________________________ In the Division Pteridophyta the plant body of the gametophyte generation lacks vascular tissue.
5. ___________________________ Most ferns are heterosporous.
6. ___________________________ Translocation of photosynthate by phloem is from source to sink.
7. ___________________________ Plants that exhibit diurnal rhythms have cycles with intervals of approximately 24 hours.
8. ___________________________ A plant which requires at least 9 hours of uninterrupted darkness to stimulate flowering is called a short-day plant.
III. Fill in the Blank (2 points each):
1. _________________________ In the Division Bryophyta, the ________ generation is the dominant generation.
2. _________________________ The first stage of the gametophyte generation is the ________.
3. _________________________ A division of seed plants which was abundant during the time of the dinosaurs, and is now extinct in the wild, but was found in China surviving in Oriental gardens and is now grown on the UNH campus.
4. _________________________ The band of suberin around each cell of the endodermis, ensuring that water enters the xylem by passing through the endodermis.
5. _________________________ What is the dispersal unit in Gymnosperms?
6. _________________________ The male gametes are formed in a structure called a(an) ________.
7. _________________________ The area of primary growth at the tip of a root is called ________.
8. _________________________ The plant hormone ________ is produced in the stem apical meristem and inhibits lateral shoots to develop, thus causing apical dominance.
9. _________________________ The region of the stem which is responsible for secondary growth by producing additional phloem and xylem is called ________.
10. _________________________ A group of plants, which arose during the Devonian and became extinct at the end of the Permian, and had fern-like leaves which bore seeds was called the ________.
11. _________________________ Double fertilization involves the union of egg and sperm to produce a zygote and a second sperm uniting with 2 polar nuclei to produce ________.
12. _________________________ A structure which has a hard external layer enclosing the embryo and nutritive tissue is called a ________.
13. _________________________ A pigment involved in seed dormancy which is a protein sensitive to light, absorbing red light and converting to a form sensitive to far-red light is called ________.
14. _________________________ The term which describes the bending of a plant toward light.
V. Circle the features which are unique to the Anthophyta (angiosperms) (2 points each).
sieve tube elements and companion cells
vascular cambium present
flower parts in 3's and 6's
vascular bundles in a ring
root system entirely adventitious
scattered vascular bundles