Points: 146 Name_________________________


Biology 412

Exam I


I. Multiple Choice (2 pts. each). Circle the letter of the most appropriate answer.


1. Which of the following persons is credited with the first published writings of evolution?

a. Linnaeus

b. Darwin

c. Theophrastus

d. Lamark

e. Wallace


2. Of the following taxonomic ranks, which is the highest?

a. species

b. family

c. class

d. genus

e. order


3. According to the fossil record, approximately how many years ago did the first living organisms appear?

a. 2.5 million

b. 135 million

c. 400 million

d. 3.5 billion

e. 4.6 billion


4. Evolutionary development that occurs in organisms which are not closely related, yet result in the evolution of similar morphological forms due to adaptation to similar environmental pressures is called

a. parallel evolution

b. convergent evolution

c. adaptive evolution

d. phylogeny


5. The photosynthetic pigment bacteriochlorophyll is present in which of the following groups.

a. Cyanobacteria

b. Archaebacteria

c. Purple sulfur bacteria

d. none of these


6. T or F: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-negative bacterium, therefore it does not stain purple because it lacks a peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall.

a. true

b. false


7. Which of the following is the term for the rod-shaped bacteria?

a. bacillus

b. coccus

c. spirillum

d. fusiform


8. The results of a bacterial infection for the host depend on a number of factors, one of which is the ability of the bacterium to multiply rapidly in the host. This is called the _____ of the bacterium.

a. toxigenicity

b. invasiveness

c. pathogenicity

d. pacificity


9. T or F: The Cyanobacteria lack chloroplasts, but do have thylakoids similar to the photosynthetic membranes in chloroplasts.

a. true

b. false


10. The genus Rhizobium has evolved a symbiotic relationship with legumes, residing in nodules on the roots, and is responsible for nitrogen fixation that enhances the growth of the legume? It belongs to ________.

a. Schizophyta

b. Cyanobacteria

c. Zygomycota

d. Oomycota


11. Which organism is a major cause of dysentery in humans?

a. Nostoc

b. Entamoeba histolytica

c. Trypanosoma cruzi

d. Plasmodium


12. Protists, with photosynthetic pigments and silica in the cell wall are:

a. Myxomycota

b. Bacillariophyta

c. Dinoflagellata

d. Ciliophora

e. Rhodophyta


13. The Anopheles mosquito transmits the disease malaria to humans when the _____ stage of the organism Plasmodium is injected into the human.

a. gamete

b. gametocyte

c. merozoite

d. sporozoite

e. zygote


14. The lobe-shaped projections in amoeboid movement of Rhizopoda are called:

a. pseudopods

b. rhizopods

c. ectoplasm

d. endoplasm

e. feet


15. In Euglena (Euglenophyta), nutrition involves:

a. photosynthesis only

b. ingestive nutrition only

c. absorptive nutrition only

d. photosynthesis and ingestion

e. photosynthesis and absorption


16. T or F: Free-floating animal-like Protistas in an aquatic environment are termed zooplankton.

a. true

b. false


17. African Sleeping Sickness involves a life cycle with which combination of organisms?

a. Trypanosoma, Tsetse fly, human

b. Plasmodium, Tsetse fly, human

c. Trypanosoma, Anopheles mosquito, human

d. Plasmodium, Anopheles mosquito, human


18. Which of the following is associated with prokaryotic cells?

a. nucleus

b. chloroplasts

c. mitochondria

d. chromosomes

e. none of the above


19. Red tides result from high population densities of:

a. Dinoflagellata

b. Euglenophyta

c. Bacillariophyta

d. Zoomastigophora

e. Rhodophyta


20. Individual hyphal strands of a fungus with a n + n nuclear condition is called a _____.

a. thallus

b. dikaryon

c. heterokaryon

d. monokaryon


21. Darwin suffered from an illness diagnosed as chagus disease, which is transmitted by a beetle. The organism causing the disease belongs to the phylum ________.

a. Bacillariophyta

b. Dinoflagellata

c. Sporozoa

d. Zoomastigophora


22. Which chlorophyll is utilized in photosynthesis by all of the following groups: Cyanobacteria, Plant-like Protistas, Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta, and Chlorophyta?

a. chlorophyll a

b. chlorophyll b

c. chlorophyll c

d. chlorophyll d

e. none of the above are used by all


23. Under adverse conditions a slime mold (Myxomycota) may form a resistent structure called a:

a. plasmodium

b. pseudoplasmodium

c. sclerotium

d. gametangium


24. The nuclear fusion that occurs with the development of the ascus in the Ascomycota is called ________:

a. isogamy

b. plasmogamy

c. heterogamy

d. oogamy

e. karyogamy


25. Which of the following groups has conjugation as a mechanism for genetic recombination?

a. Ciliophora and Sporozoa

b. Ciliophora and Zygomycota

c. Ciliophora and Conjugomycota

d. Zygomycota only


26. In the Kingdom Fungi _____ result as the products of meiosis.

a. gametes

b. spores

c. zygospores


27. Some Rhodophyta are important in the formation of coral reefs because they:

a. deposit silica in their cell walls

b. deposit calcium carbonate in and around their cells

c. supply oxygen needed by coral animals


28. Which of the following algal groups would one typically find growing in the intertidal zone along the rocky coast of Maine?

a. Phaeophyta

b. Chlorophyta

c. Rhodophyta


29. Algae which produce gametes that are morphologically different are called:

a. isogamous

b. heterogamous

c. oogamous

d. zoogamous

e. monogamous


30. Which pigment is characteristic of the brown algae (Phaeophyta)?

a. fucoxanthin

b. phycocyanin

c. algin

d. chlorophyll b


31. All of the following are characteristic of the Rhodophyta except:

a. chlorophyll a

b. chlorophyll d

c. phycoerythrin

d. leucosin food storage

e. cellulose cell wall


32. In a life cycle where the diploid (2n) and haploid (n) plant bodies look different morpholoically, the term used to describe it is _____.

a. monomorphic

b. polymorphic

c. insomorphic

d. heteromorphic

e. homomorphic


33. T or F: Isogametes look identical, but are physiologically different.

a. true

b. false


34. Which of the following photosynthetic organisms were the first organisms in our geologic history to give off oxygen?

a. Chlorophyta

b. Cyanobacteria

c. Archaebacteria

d. Rhodophyta

e. Green Sulfur Bacteria


35. Which of the following organisms have both chlorophylls a and b?

a. Chlorophyta only

b. Rhodophyta and Euglenophyta

c. Chlorophyta and Euglenophyta

d. Chlorophyta and Dinoflagellata

e. Dinoflagellata and Bacillariophyta


36. Which of the following types of reproduction occur in the Division Chlorophyta?

a. isogamy

b. heterogamy

c. conjugation

d. a & b only

e. a, b, and c


II. Fill in the Blank (2 pts. each)


    37. ______________________________ The name of the organism belonging to the Phylum Zoomastigophora which occurs widely in our mountain streams and is the cause of "Hikers Diarrhea."


    38. ______________________________ In the Kingdom Plantae the cell wall is made of cellulose, but in the Kingdom Fungi the cell wall consists of _______.


    39. ______________________________ According to Darwinian evolution, what is the driving force that leads to adaptation to new or changing environmental conditions?


    40. ______________________________ The fruiting body in the Division Ascomycota is called an ______.


    41. ______________________________ Nutrition involving the engulfing of food (organic particles) such that the food becomes sealed off in food vacuoles within the cytoplasm and then digested.


    42. ______________________________ Along with the Fungi, the _____ are the major decomposers of the biosphere.


    43. ______________________________ A unique group of organisms which actually represents a symbiotic association of a fungus and a green alga or a cyanobacterium.


    44. ______________________________ A unique symbiotic relationship between a fungus and the roots of plants which enhances the ability of the plant in the uptake of water and nutrients from the soil.


    45. ______________________________ In the fungal genus Penicillium, belonging to the group called Fungi Imperfecti, sexual reproduction is unknown, rather it reproduces by the production of asexual spores called ____.


    46. ______________________________ The "club-like" structure on which basidiospores are produced.


    47. ______________________________ Reproduction in the Bacteria and Cyanobacteria is termed _____.


    48. ______________________________ In the Ciliophora, the unique defensive organelles located in the pellicle of Paramecium which discharge toxic darts are called _____.


    49. ______________________________ Chrysolaminarin, oils and manitol are storage products characteristic of the Division _____.


    50. ______________________________ Carrageenin and agar are two economically important products from organisms belonging to the division _____.


    51. ______________________________ The name of the structure in certain cyanobacteria which contain the enzyme nitrogenase, and functions in nitrogen fixation.